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John | 17th Jun 2014, 03:04 AM | 英文作文 | (6401 Reads)

謎米知識寶庫

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqDaS_9aDl_N7ipFlSQ6LTw 

 

不論是考試作文,或者普通作文,都有三項要素:

1.          構思(framing your thoughts

2.          造句(phrasing your sentences

3.          遣詞/選詞(choosing your words

關於造句,已在《細談五大句型》和《如果連接句子》共九篇文章談了基本功。這篇文章會談構思,下一篇文章(若我仍然能寫,希望吧!)會談遣詞/選詞。

 

一篇文章(特別是考試文章)的結構,這個表可以說明:

 

引言

Introduction

簡述(或引入)文章主題,對背景及上下文提供必需的解釋。

Briefly describe or introduce what the essay is about; provide any necessary explanation of the background and context of the topic.

(正文)
構思一

(Body) Idea 1

寫你的構思時,要多次重看考試的作文題或者你寫的引言,確保你寫得貼題,或者你寫的符合你在引言所說的。

When you write your ideas, always look back at the exam question or the introduction.  Make sure what you are writing fits exactly with the exam question or what you said in the introduction that you would do.

(正文)
構思二

(Body) Idea 2

(正文)
構思三,

如此類推

(Body) Idea 3,

and so forth

結論

Conclusion

總結你的重點和構思,或者說明你所寫的會導致甚麼後果。

Summaries your main points and ideas, or say what the consequences of your writing are.

 

文章是要逐段寫的。談了整篇文章的架構和寫法,現在談一段的寫法,

1.          每段文章應寫一個獨立的要點或想法(Each paragraph should contain one separate point or idea.

2.          每段的第一句通常介紹該段的主旨,這句叫主題句,但主題句也可以寫在一段的結尾,有時會寫在一段的中間。(The first sentence of each paragraph usually introduces what the paragraph is about/its main idea.  This sentence is called topic sentence. Please note that a topic sentence may also come at the end and sometimes in the middle of a paragraph.

3.          主題句的例子

Lam Tsuen(林村)is full of interesting sights.  The Tin Hau Temple (天后廟)is more than a two hundred years old, one of the oldest temples in Tai Po.   The Wishing Tree (許願樹), a giant banyan tree(榕樹)believed to be more than 600 years old, is also a must-see for visitors.  

You run into a supermarket for a single item, but get stuck in line behind shoppers with packed carts.  Twenty minutes go by as item after item is picked up and scanned.  What if the cashier could scan a whole basket at once?  The radio frequency identification device(射頻識別器), a small electronic device that consists of a small chip(晶片)and an antenna(天線), makes this possible.

Hong Kong’s stray animal problem needs to be dealt with.  It is estimated that between five thousand and ten thousand dogs and cats live on Hong Kong streets.  In the New Territories, a large number of cows which have been abandoned by their masters stray onto the roads.  If not fed by kind strangers, such feeding being never encouraged by the government, stray dogs and cats survive by eating garbage.  With such unhealthy diets and no veterinary care(獸醫照顧), the animals often die a lonely, painful death.  Many strays are caught, abused and even miserably killed(痛苦地被殺)by hard cruel people. It is time to set up animal police teams(動物警察隊) and to fund organizations that can help fix this problem(提供資金給可以幫助解決問題的組織).

A woman is found murdered in her home.  Her badly beaten body has multiple stab wounds(多處戳傷)and is partially burned.  Traces of fire are visible around her home, and bloodstains(血跡) cover the walls and floor.  To find her killer, police need to know exactly what has happened, and they bring in the forensic pathologists(法醫官).

Stephen’s view/These views have, however, been challenged/rejected by some experts. (Continue by explaining what the experts say.)

This new law gave greater protection to workers. (Continue by describing how the law did so.)

 

4.          段與段之間的連接

以下是連接段落的有用片語。(Here are some useful phrases to link your paragraphs.

l   As a result of this research, scientists have decided …

l   Meanwhile, my brother had been busy …

l   Despite these problems, they carried on trying to …

l   Nevertheless, she was forced to …

l   However, we did not allow ourselves to …

l   On the other hand, many people say that …

l   In addition to this work on Chinese white dolphins(中華白海豚), he …

Picture 

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