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John | 20th Oct 2011, 10:43 AM | 法律英語 | (1070 Reads)
Leverage 一般解作「槓桿作用」或「槓桿效應」,但在反壟斷法,leverage解作「延伸壟斷地位」、「傳導壟斷地位」、「延伸市場影響力」或「傳導市場影響力」。 

例如,A公司在B產品有壟斷地位但在C產品沒有,A公司要求客戶凡購買B產品就必須購買C產品,或者在同時購買B產品和C產品時給予較優惠的條款(例如提高折扣,或者延長帳期),這些手法叫搭售(tying sale)、捆綁式銷(bundled sale)售、打包交易(packaged deal)、混合捆綁(mixed bundles)Microsoft曾被指運用這些手法壟斷市場。 

例句:
1.      Microsoft was accused of trying to ‘pull through’ or leverage from its existing dominant position in the software market through bundled sales.(微軟被指想通過捆綁式銷售將其在軟件市場的主導地位向外傳導/延伸。
2.      Company A and Company B cannot leverage their market power, as evidenced by the fact that they have not been able to leverage their market power through their existing portfolios.  There is nothing about the acquisition that will enable the two companies to do any act which will leverage their market power through their future portfolios.A公司和B公司無法延伸/傳導他們的市場力量,他們一直無法利用他們現時的產品組合來延伸/傳導他們的市場力量就是證明。這次收購也沒有任何事情可以令這兩家公司有能力通過他們日後的產品組合來延伸/傳導他們的市場力量。) 

Foreclosure 一般解作「沒收抵押品/擔保品」、「止贖按揭」、「取消抵押贖回權」,意指債務人(debtor)沒有償還務,債權人(creditor)於是沒收債務人擧債時的抵押品(多數用來變賣),不再准債務人贖回,但在襲斷法,foreclosure 解作「排除競爭的(市場)封鎖」。

例句:
1.      The regulatory authority argues that after the acquisition of Company A by Company B, the new company will have sufficient purchaser power vis-a-vis the suppliers to bring about an anti-competitive foreclosure for the suppliers.(監管當局提出,B公司收購A公司後,新的公司相對於供應商會有足夠的買家力量,可以給供應商帶來排除競爭的市場封鎖。)(即是說,一家公司大得可以用「買」或「不買」來影響供應商的決定,而「不買」可能對供應商有重大影響。)
2.      Company A and Company B argue that no anti-competitive foreclosure or restriction effect would arise from their merger, since they cannot leverage their market power, as their competitor Company C has already had a dominant position in the market, and even in the limited circumstances where they can bundle their products together, there exists plenty of other competitors who offer more competitive alternative bundles.A公司和B公司提出,他們的合併不會產生反競爭/妨礙競爭的排除或限制效應,因為他們不能延伸/傳導他們的市場力量,他們的競爭對手已經在市場建立了主導地位,即使在它們可以將產品作捆綁銷售的有限情況中,也存在着大量其他可以提供具競爭力捆綁產品的競爭對手。) 

De-listing一般解作上市公司「被取消上市地位」、「停牌」或「摘牌」,但在襲斷法,de-listing 解作「(將貨品)下架」。例如,供應商和零售商發生爭議或角力,零售商將供應商的某種貨物de-list(下架),但這並不表示零售商再沒有該類貨品出售(它只是不再出售某個品牌的該類貨品)。例如,橙汁也有很多品牌供應商,將Brand A橙汁下了架,還有Brands BCD的橙汁,因為批發商和零售商多數會多源採購(multi-sourcing. 

例句:
1.      We understand that Company A has been de-listed in candies. Has Company A been de-listed or threatened to be de-listed in anything else?(據我們了解,A公司的糖果類產品曾被下架。除此之外,A公司有其他產品曾被下架或可能被下架嗎?)
2.      Even if Company A’s Product B is considered to be a ‘must have’ product or having significant ‘leverage/pulling’ power, its Product C can easily be de-listed and retailers have choice as they typically adopt a multi-sourcing strategy.(縱A公司的軟件產品B被視為「必須要有」的產品或者具有重大的「市場地位傳導/拉動」能力,但A公司的軟件產品C可以輕易被下架,而零售商有選擇能力,因為他們一般採取多源採購戰略。) 

Franchise 一般解化「特許經營」,但如果用在保單(insurance policy)這個字解作免賠額」,在香港俗稱為保險的「墊底」。 

例句:
The franchise for each accident shall be HK$2,000 or 5% of the loss amount, whichever is higher.(每次事故的免賠額為港幣2,000元或損失的5%,兩者以較高者為準。) 

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