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John | 10th Aug 2011, 08:05 AM | 學習技巧與資源 | (1673 Reads)

說一些東西可以無痛的到手、快樂的過關,比較容易受觀迎和得到接受。靈丹妙葯永遠有市場。所以,我們有「無痛學習」和「快樂抗爭」。

 

以下是一些改善writing style的具體、「容易」建議。「容易」指的,不是作者提出時「容易」,而是因為下面的建議寫得簡單、具體,欠奉廢話,不用你費力去出糟方便你消化、容易你吸引、易於你使用。

  

以下資料轉載自這條link

http://www.bestessaytips.com/improve_writing_style.php

上面的link是這個網站 (http://www.bestessaytips.com/) 的一部分,這是一個教大學生寫論文的網站,所以很多內容並不適合中學生,但有關Improving your writing style的一節卻能適合,這節還舉出很多寫essay時用得到的詞,可能適合不少「同學仔」的口味。

Improving your writing style

A good writing is a result of regular practice, training and persistence. Once a famous novelist admitted that writing is about 90 per cent perspiration and 10 per cent inspiration. Do not be discouraged by the severe statistics. Look at it from the other perspective: if you persist, if you practise and work hard, your writing will become better with every effort you make.

To improve your writing follow these 10 tips: 

1. Write in the active voice.

Every sound sentence is based on the strong active verb. However in some cases passives are relevant:

• To put emphasis on the action rather than the doer of the action.

• To sound considerate by not naming the doer of the action.

• To illustrate a condition in which the actor is unknown or unimportant.

• To sound authoritatively. 

2. Cut wordy phrases.
Use concise and simple words instead of long phrases :

Meaning:

Use
explaining smth.because, since, why
indicating contradictionalthough, even, though
showing conditionif
Showing necessity, obligationmust, should
Showing capacitycan
Indicating probability, possibilitymay, might, can, could
Showing precedencebefore

3. Trim off the unnecessary prepositional phrases.

Reduce the usage of prepositional phrases, especially for denoting the idea of possession (Use apostrophe +s). Do not stuff your sentence with too many prepositional phrases; they divert focus from the main subject and the action of a sentence. 

4. Avoid expletive patterns such as: It is……; there is / are.

These constructions divert the reader’s attention from the main subject and action of the sentence.

Instead of: It was his generous attitude that impressed me most.

Write: His generous attitude impressed me most. 

5. Do not use many vague nouns (especially in prepositional phrase). These nouns result in wordiness and do not add up to a better communication of the idea.

·         - factor

·         - aspect

·         - area

·         - situation

·         - consideration

·         - degree

·         - case  

Instead of: Strong writing skills are a crucial factor in students' academic success.

Write: Students' academic success depends on strong writing skills. 

6. Do not pretend to have a learned air.

Do not cram inflated phrases into your writing to put on airs. Choose a simpler phrase that conveys the same meaning. 

7. Avoid noun chains.

Unless the audience is acquainted with a jargon you use, do not use phrases with too many consecutive nouns.

Instead of: Our company has developed an employee performance enhancement program.

Write: Our company has developed a program for enhancing the employee’s performance. 

8. Link ideas and paragraphs with transitions.

They help your reader follow the logic of your writing.

Before you use a particular transition in your paper, make sure it matches the logic of the text.

Meanings of transitions

Examples
Adding a new ideaFurthermore, moreover, too, also, in the second place, again, in addition, even more, next, further, last, lastly, finally, besides, and, or, nor, first second, secondly, etc.
Expressing timeWhile, immediately, never, After, later, earlier, always, When, soon, whenever, Meanwhile, sometimes, in the meantime, during, afterwards, now, until now, next, following, then, at length, simultaneously, so far, this time, subsequently,
Indicating placeHere, beyond, adjacent to, there, wherever, neighbouring on, nearby, opposite to, above, below
Giving examplesto illustrate, as an illustration, to demonstrate, e.g., (for example)specifically, for example, for instance
Comparingin the same way, in like manner by the same token, likewise similarly, in similar fashion
Showing contrastYet, on the contrary, but, and yet, in contrast, however, nevertheless, notwithstanding, though, nonetheless on the other hand, otherwise, after all, at the same time
Explainingthat is to say, to clarify, in other words, to rephrase it, to explain, to put it another way, i.e., (that is)
Showing reasonBecause, on account of, since, for that reason
Showing consequenceTherefore, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, as a result
Implying purposein order that, to that end, to this end, so that, for this purpose
EmphasizingIndeed, undoubtedly, to repeat, in fact, certainly, by all means, surely, without doubt,of course
Making conclusionsto summarize, in short, in brief in sum, in summary, to sum up, in conclusion, to conclude, finally.

9. Control the length of your sentences.

The optimal sentence length comprises 15 -20 words. However, it does not imply you have to produce every sentence according to this standard. It is far better to vary the length and the rhythm of the sentences. Combine long sentences with shorter or even elliptical constructions. 

10. Be careful with abbreviations and acronyms.

The universal recommendation for the usage of abbreviations is to write their full form when they are used first in the text. You do not have to provide the explanation for abbreviation if it is well-known. However, don’t use abbreviations that are commonly known as one term and you intend to alter their meaning. Use no more than two or three shortened forms in any writing regardless its overall size. 

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