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John | 8th Aug 2011, 21:15 PM | 中國學術、歷史+創作小故事 | (527 Reads)

八佾第三

論語八佾篇第三(語譯及漢英對照) 

語譯是錢穆教授的作品。Black色的譯文是劉殿爵教授的作品。Pink色的譯文和評論是Charles Muller的作品。  

1.          孔子謂季氏:「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」  

語譯:季孫氏在他家廟的庭中使用了周天子八八六十四人的舞蹈行列,孔子說:「這等事,他都忍心做,什麼事他不忍心做呀!」 

翻譯:

Confucius said of the Chi Family, 'They use eight rows of eight dancers each to perform in their courtyard. If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated? 

Confucius, speaking about the head of the Ch'i family said, "He has eight rows of dancers in his court. If he does this, what will he not do?" [Comment] In this passage and the following one, Confucius is complaining about a lower-level aristocrat using ceremonies that were officially prescribed for much higher-level nobility. "Eight rows of dancers," was the amount allowable to only the most elite of the nobility. The head of the Ch'i family is often criticized in the Analects for similar improprieties. 

2.          三家者以雍徹。子曰:「『相維辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」  

語譯:魯國孟孫,叔孫,季孫三家,舉行家祭,祭畢撤饌之時,也命樂工唱〈雍〉之詩。先生說:「〈雍〉詩中說:四方諸侯都來助祭,天子儀容,那樣穆穆地敬而美,這在三家堂上唱來,有何意義呀!」 

翻譯:

The Three Families performed the yung when the sacrificial offerings were being cleared away. The Master said, 'In attendance were the great lords, In solemn dignity was the Emperor. What application has this to the halls of the Three Families?' 

The Three Families used the Yung Songs at the clearing of the sacrificial vessels. Confucius said, Attended on by Lords and Princes: How magnificent is the Son of Heaven! How could these words be used in the halls of the Three Families?

3.          子曰:「人而不仁,如禮何?人而不仁,如樂何?」  

語譯:先生說:「人心若沒有了仁,把禮來如何運用呀!人心若沒有了仁,把樂如何來運用呀!」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'What can a man do with the rites who is not benevolent?  What can a man do with music who is not benevolent?' 

Confucius said: "If a man has no jen what can his propriety be like? If a man has no jen what can his music be like?" [Comment] Since jen is the essence of all positive human attributes, without it, how can they truly operate?

4.          林放問禮之本。子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉;喪,與其易也,寧戚。」  

語譯:林放問:「什麼是禮的本原?」先生說:「你所問,意義大了。一切的禮,與其過於奢侈,寧過在節儉上。喪禮與其過於治辦,寧過在哀戚上。」 

翻譯:

Lin Fang asked about the basis of the rites.  The Master said, 'A noble question indeed!  With the rites, it is better to err on the side of frugality than on the side of extravagance; in mourning, it is better to err on the side of grief than on the side of formality. 

Lin Fang asked about the fundamentals of ritual. Confucius said, "What an excellent question! In ritual, it is better to be frugal than extravagant; in funerals deep sorrow is better than ease." 

5.          子曰:「夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也。」  

語譯:先生說:「夷狄雖有君,仍不如諸夏之無君。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Barbarian tribes with their rulers are inferior to Chinese states without them.’ 

Confucius said: "The tribes of the East and North (Koreans and Mongolians), though having kings, are not equal to our people, even when lacking kings,"

[Comment] Either Confucius is an outright ethnic chauvinist, or he is pointing to a real difference in the relative level of cultural development at that time between the central Chinese kingdoms and the outerlying peoples.

6.          季氏旅於泰山。子謂冉有曰:「女弗能救與?」對曰:「不能。」子曰:「嗚呼!曾謂泰山,不如林放乎?」  

語譯:季孫氏去祭泰山,先生告冉有道:「你不能救正這事嗎?」冉有對道:「我不能。」先生嘆息道:「唉!難道泰山神會不如林放嗎?」 

翻譯:

The Chi Family were going to perform the sacrifice to Mount T’ai.  The Master said to Jan Ch'iu, 'Can you not save the situation?' 'No.  I cannot.' The Master said, 'Alas! Who would have thought that Mount T’ai would suffer in comparison widi Lin Fang?' 

7.          子曰:「君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而飲,其爭也君子。」  

語譯:先生說:「君子對人沒有什麼爭,除卻和人比射時。但先必相互作揖,纔升到堂上去。比射後,又相互作揖纔退下。勝者敗者又必相互作揖了再升堂,舉杯對飲。這樣的爭,還是君子之爭呀。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'There is no contention between gentlemen. The nearest to it is, perhaps, archery.  In archery they bow and make way for one another as they go up and on coming down they drink together.  Even the way they contend is gentlemanly.' 

Confucius said: "The Superior Man has nothing to compete for. But if he must compete, he does it in an archery match, wherein he ascends to his position, bowing in deference. Descending, he drinks the ritual cup. This is the competition of the Superior Man." 

8.          子夏問曰:「『巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮。』何謂也?」子曰:「繪事後素。」曰:「禮後乎?」子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩已矣。」  

語譯:子夏問道:「古詩說:『巧笑倩啊,美目盼啊,再用素粉來增添她的美麗啊。』這三句詩指的是什麼呢?「先生說:「你看繪畫,不也是臨後始加素色嗎?」子夏說:「不是說禮是後起之事嗎?」先生說:「開發引起我心意的是商了。如他那樣,纔可和他言《詩》了。」 

翻譯:Tzu-hsia asked, 'Her entrancing smile dimpling, Her beautiful eyes glancing, Patterns of colour upon plain silk. What is the meaning of these lines?' The Master said, 'The colours are put in after the white. 'Does the practice of the rites likewise come afterwards?' The Master said,' It is you, Shang, who have thrown light on the text for me. Only with a man like you can one discuss the Odes' 

Tzu Hsia quoted the following: Her tactful smile charms; Her eyes, fine and clear, Beautiful without accessories. And asked its meaning. Confucius said, "A painting is done on plain white paper." Tzu Hsia said, "Then are rituals a secondary thing?" Confucius said, "Ah, Shang, you uplift me. Now we can really begin to discuss the Book of Odes." [Comment] Among all the ancient classical works available to scholars of the time, Confucius seems to place special value on the Book of Odes, for its strength in moral teachings as well as the intellectual stimulation it provided. 

9.          子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也;殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。文獻不足故也,足則吾能徵之矣。」  

語譯:先生說:「我能說夏代之禮,惜乎杞國不夠為我說作證明。我能說殷代之禮,惜乎宋國不夠為我作證明。這因杞、宋兩國現存的典籍和賢人皆不足之故。否則我準能把來證成我說了。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'I am able to discourse on the rites of the Hsia, but the state of Ch'i does not furnish sufficient supporting evidence; I am able to discourse on the rites of the Yin, but the state of Sung does not furnish sufficient supporting evidence.  This is because there are not enough records and men of erudition.  Otherwise I would be able to support what I say with evidence.' 

10.      子曰:「禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。」  

語譯:先生說:「我對禘禮,只待香酒初獻灌之後,便不想再看下去了。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'I do not wish to witness that part of the ti sacrifice which follows the opening libation to the impersonator.' 

Confucius said: "At the Great Sacrifice, after the pouring of the libation, I have no further desire to watch." 

11.      或問禘之說。子曰:「不知也。知其說者之於天下也,其如示諸斯乎!」指其掌。  

語譯:有人問:關於禘祭之禮的說法。先生說:「我不知呀!若有能知禘禮說法的人,他對整個天下,正像擺在這裏呀!」先生一面說,一面指着自己的手掌。 

翻譯:

Someone asked about the theory of the ti sacrifice.  The Master said, 'It is not something I understand, for whoever understands it will be able to manage the Empire as easily as if he had it here,' pointing to his palm. 

Someone asked for an explanation of the Great Sacrifice. Confucius said, "I don't know. If there were someone who knew this, he could see the whole world as if it were this": He pointed to the palm of his hand. 

12.      祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:「吾不與祭,如不祭。」  

語譯:先生在祭祖先時,好像真有祖先們在受祭。他祭神時,也好像真有神在他面前般。先生說:「我若不親身臨祭,便只如不祭。」 

翻譯:

'Sacrifice as if present' is taken to mean 'sacrifice to the gods as if the gods were present.' The Master, however, said, 'Unless I take part in a sacrifice, it is as if I did not sacrifice.' 

"Sacrificing as if present" means sacrificing to the spirits as if they were present. Confucius said, "If I do not personally offer the sacrifice, it is the same as not having sacrificed at all." 

13.      王孫賈問曰:「與其媚於奧,寧媚於灶,何謂也?」子曰:「不然,獲罪於天,無所禱也。」  

語譯:王孫賈問道:「俗話說的,與其在奧處求媚,不如在竈處求媚,這是什麼意思呀?」先生說:「不是這樣的。若獲罪了上天,什麼去處也用不上你的禱告了。」 

翻譯:

Wang-sun Chia said, 'Better to be obsequious to the kitchen stove than to the south-west comer of the house. What does that mean?' The Master said, 'The saying has got it wrong.  When you have offended against Heaven, there is nowhere you can turn to in your prayers.' 

Wang Sun Chia asked: "What do you think about the saying 'It is better to sacrifice to the god of the stove than to the god of the family shrine.'?" Confucius said, "Not so. If you offend Heaven, there is no one you can pray to." 

14.      子曰:「周監於二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾從周。」  

語譯:先生說:「周代看了夏、殷二代之演進,它的一切制度禮樂文章,何等美盛呀!我是主張遵從周代的。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'The Chou is resplendent in culture, having before it the example of the two previous dynasties.  I am for the Chou.' 

Confucius said: "The people of the Chou were able to observe the prior two dynasties and thus their culture flourished. I now follow the Chou." 

15.      子入大廟,每事問。或曰:「孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎?入大廟,每事問。」子聞之曰:「是禮也。」  

語譯:先生初進太廟,遇事輒問。或人說:「那個人說這一位鄹邑的年輕人知禮呀?他跑進太廟,什麼事都要問。」先生聽到了,說:「那些就算是禮嗎?」 

翻譯:

When the Master went inside the Grand Temple, he asked questions about everything.  Someone remarked, 'Who said that the son of the man from Tsou understood the rites?  When he went inside the Grand Temple, he asked questions about everything.' The Master, on hearing of this, said, "The asking of questions is in itself the correct rite.' 

When Confucius entered the Grand Temple, he asked about everything. Someone said, "Who said Confucius is a master of ritual? He enters the Grand Temple and asks about everything!" Confucius, hearing this, said, "This is the ritual." 

16.      子曰:「射不主皮,為力不同科,古之道也。」  

語譯:先生說:「比較射藝,不主要在能射穿皮革,因各人體力有不同,這是古人的道理呀!」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'In archery the point lies not in piercing the hide, For the reason that strength varies from man to man. This was the way of antiquity.' 

Confucius said: "In archery it is not important to pierce through the leather covering of the target, since not all men have the same strength. This is the Way of the ancients." 

17.      子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。子曰:「賜也,爾愛其羊,我愛其禮。」  

語譯:子貢欲把每月在廟告朔所宰的那頭腥羊也去了。先生說:「賜呀!你愛惜那一羊,我愛惜那一禮呀。」 

翻譯:

Tzu-kung wanted to do away with the sacrificial sheep at the announcement of the new moon.  The Master said, 'Ssu, you are loath to part with the price of the sheep, but I am loath to see the disappearance of the rite.' 

Tzu Kung wanted to do away with the sacrifice of the sheep on the first of the month. Confucius said, "Tz'u, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony." 

18.      子曰:「事君盡禮,人以為諂也。」  

語譯:先生說:「事君能盡禮的,世人反說他是諂。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'You will be looked upon as obsequious by others if you observe every detail of the rites in serving your lord.' 

Confucius said: "If you use every single courtesy while serving your prince, the people will call you a brown-noser." 

19.      定公問:「君使臣,臣事君,如之何?」孔子對曰:「君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。」  

語譯:定公問:「君使喚臣,臣奉事君,該如何呢?」孔子對道:「君能以禮使臣,臣自會盡忠奉君了。」 

翻譯:

Duke Ting asked, 'What is the way the ruler should employ the services of his subjects?  What is the way a subject should serve his ruler?' Confucius answered, 'The ruler should employ the services of his subjects in accordance with the rites.  A subject should serve his ruler by doing his best.' 

Duke Ting asked how a ruler should employ his ministers and how a minister should serve his ruler. Confucius replied, saying: "The prince employs his ministers with propriety; the ministers serve their prince with good faith." 

20.      子曰:「關雎,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。」  

語譯:先生說:「〈關雎〉那一章詩,有歡樂,但不流於放蕩。有悲哀,但不陷於傷損。」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'In the kuan chu there is joy without wantonness, and sorrow without self injury.' 

Confucius said: "The Kuan Tzu ("The Cry of the Ospreys") is the first poem in the Book of Odes. It begins by describing a lover's grief at being separated from his lady and ends by describing their joyful union. The Kuan Tzu allows for pleasure without being lewd and allows for grief without being too painful." 

21.      哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰:「夏后氏以松,殷人以柏,周人以栗,曰使民戰栗。」子聞之曰:「成事不說,遂事不諫,既往不咎。」  

語譯:哀公問宰我關於社的事。宰我答道:「夏后氏用松為社,殷人用柏,周人用栗。宰我又說:『用栗是要使民戰慄,對政府有畏懼。』先生聽到了,說:「事已成,不須再說了。事既行,也不須再諫了。已往之事,也不必再追咎了。」 

翻譯:

Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altar to the god of earth. Tsai Wo replied, 'The Hsia used the pine, the Yin used the cedar, and the men of Chou used the chestnut (li ), saying that it made the common people tremble (li).' The Master, on hearing of this reply, commented, 'One does not explain away what is already done, one does not argue against what is already accomplished, and one does not condemn what has already gone by.' 

The Duke of Ai asked Tsai Wo about sacred temple grounds. Tsai Wo said, "The Hsia emperor planted them with pines; the Hsiang people planted them with cypress and the Chou people planted them with chestnut, thinking to cause people to be in awe of these trees."  Confucius, hearing this, said, "Don't bother explaining that which has already been done; don't bother criticizing that which is already gone; don't bother blaming that which is already past." 

22.      子曰:「管仲之器小哉!」或曰:「管仲儉乎?」曰:「管氏有三歸,官事不攝,焉得儉?」「然則管仲知禮乎?」曰:「邦君樹塞門,管氏亦樹塞門;邦君為兩君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?」  

語譯:先生說:「管仲的器量真小呀!」或人說:「管仲生活得很儉嗎?」先生道:「管仲有三處家,各處各項職事,都設有專人,不兼攝,那好算儉?」或人說:「那麼管子知禮嗎?」先生說:「國君在大門外有屏,管仲家大門外也有屏。國君宴會,堂上有安放酒杯的土几,管仲宴客也有那樣的土几。若說管仲知禮,誰不知禮呀?」 

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Kuan Chung was, indeed, a vessel of small capacity.' Someone remarked, 'Was Kuan Chung frugal, then?' 'Kuan Chung kept three separate establishments, each complete with its own staff. How can he be called frugal?' ‘In that case, did Kuan Chung understand the rites?' 'Rulers of states erect gate-screens; Kuan Chung erected such a screen as well.  The ruler of a state, when entertaining the ruler of another state, has a stand for inverted cups; Kuan Chung had such a stand as well.  If even Kuan Chung understood the rites, who does not understand them?' 

Confucius said: "Kuan Chung was quite limited in capacity." Someone asked: "Wasn't Kuan Chung frugal?" Confucius said, "Kuan had three sets of wives and his officers never did overtime. How can he be considered to have been frugal?" "But then did Kuan Chung understand propriety?" Confucius said, "The princes of the states have a special ritual screen at their door, and so did Kuan Chung (even though he was not of the proper rank to do this). When the princes of state had a friendly meeting, they would ritually turn their cups over on the table. -Kuan also turned his cups over on the table. If Kuan Chung understood propriety, then who doesn't?" 

23.      子語魯大師樂。曰:「樂其可知也:始作,翕如也;從之,純如也,皦如也,繹如也,以成。」  

語譯:先生告訴魯國的太師官說:「樂的演奏之全部進程是可知了。一開始,是這樣地興奮而振作,跟著是這樣地純一而和諧,又是這樣地清楚而明亮,又是這樣地連緜而流走,樂便這樣地完成了。」 

翻譯:The Master talked of music to the Grand Musician of Lu, saying, 'This much can be known about music.  It begins with playing in unison.  When it gets into full swing, it is harmonious, clear and unbroken.  In this way it reaches the conclusion.' 

Confucius, when talking with the Grand Music Master of Lu, said, "In my understanding of music, the piece should be begun in unison. Afterwards, if it is pure, clear and without break, it will be perfect." 

24.      儀封人請見。曰:「君子之至於斯也,吾未嘗不得見也。」從者見之。出曰:「二三子,何患於喪乎?天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子為木鐸。」  

語譯:衞國儀邑的封疆官,請見於孔子,他說:「一向有賢人君子過此,我沒有不見的。」孔子的弟子們領他去見孔子。他出後,對孔子的弟子們說:「諸位,何必憂慮你們先生的失位呢?天下無道久了,天意將把你們夫子當作木鐸,來傳道於天下呀!」 

翻譯:

The border official of Yi requested an audience, saying, 'I have never been denied an audience by any gentleman who has come to this place.'  The followers presented him.  When he came out, he said, 'What worry have you, gentlemen, about the loss of office?  The Empire has long been without the Way.  Heaven is about to use your Master as the wooden tongue for a bell.' 

The border guard at Yi requested an audience with the Master, saying: "Whenever a Superior Man comes here, I never miss the opportunity to see him." The disciples sent him in. When he came out, he said, "Friends, don't have any doubts about your master failing. The world has certainly lacked the Tao for a long time now, but Heaven will use your master to awaken everyone." 

25.      子謂韶,「盡美矣,又盡善也。」謂武,「盡美矣,未盡善也」。  

語譯:先生說:「〈韶〉樂十分的美了,又是十分的善。〈武〉樂十分的美了,但還未十分的善。」 

翻譯:

The Master said of the shoo that it was both perfectly beautiful and perfectly good, and of the wa that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good. 

26.      子曰:「居上不寬,為禮不敬,臨喪不哀,吾何以觀之哉?」 

語譯:先生說:「居上位,不能寬以待下,遇行禮時不能敬,臨遭喪事,沒有哀戚,我再把什麼來看察他呢?」  

翻譯:The Master said, 'What can I find worthy of note in a man who is lacking in tolerance when in high position, in reverence when performing the rites and in sorrow when in mourning?' (請看留言)

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