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John | 16th Jun 2011, 06:30 AM | 學習技巧與資源 | (1641 Reads)

題目的四本書,作者叫Bruce Ross – Larson,都可以免費閱讀。這是作者在Edit Yourself 第一部分的Author’s Note  

In the first part of this book, I have drawn together solutions to the more common problems of everyday writing, such problems as fat, inconsistency, and the failure to use parallel grammatical constructions. 

以下是Pronoun References (代名詞指涉) 的節錄:

Ambiguous pronouns

If two or three nouns vie for a pronoun, the reference is almost certain to be ambiguous. The general solutions are to repeat the noun rather than use a pronoun or to eliminate the pretenders by changing their number.

The main problem that people run into with pronouns arises from their not being tied to a noun. CHANGE TOThe main problem that people run into with pronouns arises from a pronoun's not being tied to a noun.
 ORThe main problem that a writer has with pronouns arises from their not being tied to a noun.

以上左邊這句,their people抑或pronouns? pronouns 重複或者將people改為a writer之後,就清楚了。 

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只要點擊以下的連結,就可以免費閱讀上面四本書。

Click進去,會看見Edit Yourself Part I 的目錄(Part II欠奉)。另外三本書,click 目錄右手邊那個Box就可以讀。Box的最底一欄是Clearwriter,是賣一些服務的,我沒有買過,不能評論好壞。

http://www.clearwriter.com/cleartips/edityourself/index.htm 

ClearTips: Edit yourself

What Editors Look For

1. Fat
Superfluous nouns
Superfluous verbs
Superfluous nouns and prepositions
The opening It
The opening There
Overweight prepositions
Weak modifiers

2. The Better Word
What to prefer
       
Prefer short words to long
       Prefer concrete words to abstract
       Prefer specific words to general
       Prefer everyday language to jargon
       Prefer singular nouns to plural
       Prefer words to symbols, initials, and abbreviations
       Prefer American words and phrases to foreign
       Prefer familiar words to unfamiliar
What to avoid
       
Avoid contractions
       Avoid ugly words ending in -wise and -ize
       Avoid overused phrases (and fad words and slang)
What else to watch
       
Watch prepositions
       Watch seeming synonyms

3. Pronoun References
Ambiguous pronouns
Distant pronouns
Premature pronouns
Vague pronouns
Illogical pronouns

4. Order in the Sentence
Count the syllables
Count the words
Put compound elements last
Exceptions
       
Use the obvious sequence or chronology
       Avoid unintended modifiers
       Use the familiar or explicit order

5. Shorter Sentences
Break a long sentence into two or more sentences
Cut unnecessary phrases and clauses
Judicious rearrangement and punctuation

6. Dangling Constructions
Participles
Other parts

7. Abused Relatives
Punctuate nonrestrictive clauses
Watch clauses that do not follow the noun they modify
       
Make the object of the prepositional phrase plural and rely on verb number
       Repeat the noun before a restrictive clause
       Delete the intervening prepositional phrase
       Rewrite the sentence
Avoid hopscotching between that and which
Avoid too many that's, which's, and who's
       
Cut out that is and that are (and who is and who are)
       Cut out which is and which are (and who is and who are)
       Cut out unimportant nonrestrictive clauses
       Raise the nonrestrictive clause to a main or subordinate clause

8. The Active Voice
Switching from passive voice to active
       
Transpose the subject and the object
       Give the sentence an active subject
When to use the passive voice
       
If the actor should be left out
       If what is acted on is the subject of the paragraph

9. Parallel Constructions
Parallelism with coordinating conjunctions
Parallelism with correlative conjunctions

10. Consistency
Spelling
       
Words with two or more acceptable spellings
       Different words serving one function
       Latin plurals
Open, solid, and hyphenated terms
       
Prefixes
       Compound nouns
       Compound adjectives
Capitals
Symbols and abbreviations
       
Symbols
       Abbreviations of unit
       Abbreviations of Latin terms
       Other abbreviations
Initials
Numbers
Punctuation

11. Basic Tools
Dictionary
Style sheet
Checklist
Sample style sheet

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