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John | 11th May 2011, 16:40 PM | 學習技巧與資源 | (1761 Reads)

精讀的目的是改善寫作能力。精讀一定要選好文章。

我選英國散文家Arther Clutton-Brock1868-1924)寫的散文The Cardinal Virtue of Prose頭兩句(全文七句)作例子,和你一起體會為甚麽人們認為這篇文章寫得好。文章不長,全文可以在網上找。我只能解釋頭兩句(因為解釋寫得稍長,很費力),我提供幾點值得思考之處,並依照原文模仿幾句。

 

原文第一句:

Prose of its very nature is longer than verse, and the virtues1 peculiar to it2  manifest themselves gradually3. (散文,就其性質來說,篇幅比韵文長,而且,散文的特有優點是逐漸顯現出來的。)

1 virtue 作「美德」解是uncountable noun,這裡作「優點;長處」解,是countable noun
2. peculiar to A,指A特有的。
3 manifest themselves/itself 顯現。His illness began to manifest itself last month. (他的病上個月開始顯現出來。)

思考一:請比較Prose of its very nature is longer than verseProse is longer than verse的味道。
 

思考二:請比較Prose of its very nature is longer than verse, and the virtues peculiar to it manifest themselves graduallyProse is longer than verse and its virtues manifest themselves only gradually 的味道。


模仿改寫一:

Subject knowledge by its very nature is less appealing to students than exam skills, and the virtues peculiar to it manifest themselves gradually.  (科目知識,就其性質來說,對學生的吸引力比應試技巧低,而且,科目知識的特有優點是逐漸顯現出來的。)

 模仿改寫二:

District work, by its very nature, is less dramatic than public protests, but the virtues peculiar to it manifest themselves only gradually. (地區工作,就其性質來說,激動人心的程度比公開抗議低,而且,地區工作的特有優點是逐漸才顯現出來的。)

原文第二句:

If the cardinal virtue of poetry is love, the cardinal virtue of prose is justice; and, whereas love makes you act and speak on the spur of the moment (一時衝動), justice needs inquiry, patience, and a control even of the noblest passions. (如果說詩歌的主要優點是愛,那麽,散文的主要優點就是合理公正。愛使人熱情奔放,瞬間爆發,而合理公正需要的是質疑、耐心和控制情感,即便是最崇高的激情。)

思考一:作者為甚麽用「;and, whereas?提示:請想一想「;」的用法,whereas是不是有對照意味?


思考二:作者如何組織這句,為甚麽要這樣組織?提示:先說AvirtueBCvirtueD,然後用「;and, whereas」一氣呵成地比較BD的不同。


思考三:為甚麽寫justice needs inquiry, patience, and a control even of the noblest passions?為甚麽不寫justice needs a control even of the noblest passions, inquiry, and patience?提示:英文結構,越長的部分應越放得越前抑或越後?

模仿改寫一:

If the cardinal virtue of a good government is efficiency, the cardinal virtue of democracy is a regular change of governments; and, whereas efficiency enables the government to achieve its objectives quickly, a regular change of governments can ensure civil liberties (民權), readiness to defy authority and a statutory restraint on governmental powers. (如果說良好政府的主要優點是效率,那麽,民要的主要優點就是政府定期輪替。效率使政府能夠快速達成目標,而政府定期輪替可以確保民權、敢於不服從權力、以及對政府權力的法定制約。)

模仿改寫二:

If the cardinal virtue of a good government is efficiency, the cardinal virtue of democracy is a regular change of governments; and, whereas efficiency enables the government to achieve its objectives quickly, a regular change of governments can prevent corruption, abuse of power and one-party dictatorship. (如果說良好政府的主要優點是效率,那麽,民要的主要優點就是政府定期輪替。效率使政府能夠快速達成目標,而政府定期輪替可以阻止貪污、濫權和一黨專政。)

精讀四步:

綜上,精讀可分四步:(1) 搞清楚句中不明白的生字、片語和任何部分;(2) 思考句子的結構,作者為甚麽這樣寫?(3) 自己模仿句子的寫法寫一、兩句(但不一定要整句模仿,模仿半句亦可)。(4)部分句子應該背誦。

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