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John | 26th Sep 2010, 09:41 AM | 中國學術、歷史+創作小故事 | (7033 Reads)
語譯是錢穆教授的作品。Black色的譯文是劉殿爵教授的作品。Pink色的譯文和評論是Charles Muller的作品。

1. 子曰:「為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之。」

語譯:先生說:「為政以已德為主,譬如天上的北辰,安居其所,眾星圍繞歸向著它而旋轉。」研釋:人事一本於人心。德昋,雖蘊於一心,實為一切人事之樞機。孔謂認為,政治領袖主要的品德,是一切領導的主動。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'The rule of virtue can be compared to the Pole Star which commands the homage of the multitude of stars without leaving its place.'

Confucius said: "If you govern with the power of your virtue, you will be like the North Star. It just stays in its place while all the other stars position themselves around it."

[Comment] This is the Analects' first statement on government. Scholars of Chinese thought have commonly placed great emphasis on a supposed radical distinction between Confucian "authoritative" government and Taoist "laissez-faire" government. But numerous Confucian passages such as this which suggest of the ruler's governance by a mere attunement with an inner principle of goodness, without unnecessary external action, quite like the Taoist wu-wei are far more numerous than has been noted. This is one good reason for us to be careful when making the commonplace Confucian/Taoist generalizations without qualification.

2. 子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰『思無邪』。」  

語譯:先生說:「詩經三百篇,可把其中一句詩來包括盡,即是:『思無邪』。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'The Odes are three hundred in number.  They can be summed up in one phrase,Sweerving not from the right path’6[1] 

Confucius said: "The 300 verses of the Book of Odes can be summed up in a single phrase: 'Don't think in an evil way.'"

3. 子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」

語譯:先生說:「用政治來領導人,用刑法來整齊人,人求免於刑罰便算了,不感不服領導是可耻的。若把德來領導人,把禮來整齊人,人人心中將感到違背領導是耻辱,自能正確地到達在上者所領導他們到達的方向去。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame.  Guide them by virtue, keep them in line with the rites, and they will, besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves.'

Confucius said: "If you govern the people legalistically and control them by punishment, they will avoid crime, but have no personal sense of shame. If you govern them by means of virtue and control them with propriety, they will gain their own sense of shame, and thus correct themselves."

4. 子曰:「吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」

語譯:先生說:「我十五歲時,始有志於學。到三十歲,能堅定自立了。到四十,我對一切道理,能通達不再有疑惑。到五十,我能知道什麽是天命了。到六十,凡我一切聽到的,都能明白貫通,不再感到於心有所違逆。到七十,我只放任我心所欲,也不會有踰越規矩法度之處了。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'At fifteen I set my heart on learning; at thirty I took my stand; at forty I came to be free from doubts; at fifty I understood the Decree of Heaven; at sixty my ear was atuned;[2] at seventy I followed my heart's desire without overstepping the line.'

Confucius said: "At fifteen my heart was set on learning; at thirty I stood firm; at forty I had no more doubts; at fifty I knew the mandate of heaven; at sixty my ear was obedient; at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing the norm."

5. 孟懿子問孝。子曰:「無違。」樊遲御,子告之曰:「孟孫問孝於我,我對曰『無違』。」樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」

語譯:孟懿子問:「怎樣是孝道?」先生說:「不要違逆了。」一日,樊遲為圥生御車,先生告訴他說:「孟孫問我孝道,我答他:『不要違逆了。』樊遲說:「這是什麽意思?」先生說:「父母生時,當以禮奉事。死了,以禮葬,以禮祭。」

翻譯:

Meng Yi Tzu asked about being filial.  The Master answered, 'Never fail to comply.’Fan Ch'ih was driving. The Master told him about the interview, saying, 'Meng-sun asked me about being filial. I answered, "Never fail to comply."'Fan Ch'ih asked, 'What does that mean?'The Master said, 'When your parents are alive, comply with the rites in serving them; when they die, comply with the rites in burying them; comply with the rites in sacrificing to them.'

Meng I Tzu asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "It means 'not diverging (from your parents).'"" Later, when Fan Chih was driving him, Confucius told Fan Chih, "Meng Sun asked me about the meaning of filial piety, and I told him 'not diverging.'" Fan Chih said, "What did you mean by that?" Confucius said, "When your parents are alive, serve them with propriety; when they die, bury them with propriety, and then worship them with propriety."

6. 孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」

語譯:孟武伯問:「怎樣是孝道?」先生說:「讓你的父母憂慮你的疾病。」

研釋:父母愛子女,無微不至,所以,子女應常以謹傎持身,使公母唯以其疾病為憂,言他無可憂。人之疾,非己所能自主。

翻譯:

Meng Wu Po asked about being filial. The Master said, 'Give your father and mother no other cause for anxiety than illness.'

Meng Wu Po asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "The main concern of your parents is about your health."

[Comment] When we are separated from our parents for long periods of time, we can set their minds at ease by letting them know that we are in good health.

7. 子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎?」

語譯:子游問:「怎樣是孝道?」先生說:「現在人只把能養父母便算孝了。就是犬馬,一樣能有人養著。沒有對父母一片敬心,又在何處作分別呢!」

翻譯:

Tzu-yu asked about being filial. The Master said, 'Nowadays for a man to be filial means no more than that he is able to provide his parents with food.  Even hounds and orses are, in some way, provided with food.  If a man shows no reverence, where is the difference?'

Tzu Lu asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, "Nowadays filial piety means being able to feed your parents. But everyone does this for even horses and dogs. Without respect, what's the difference?"

8. 子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事弟子服其勞,有酒食先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」

語譯:先生說:「怎樣是孝道?」先生說:「難在子女的容色上。若遇有事,由年幼的操勞,有了酒食,先讓年老的喫,這就是孝了嗎?」

翻譯:

Tzu-hsia asked about being filial. The Master said, 'What is difficult to manage is the expression on one's face.  As for the young taking on the burden when there is work to be done or letting the old enjoy the wine and the food when these are available, that hardly deserves to be called filial.'

Tzu Hsia asked about filial piety. Confucius said, "What is important is the expression you show in your face. You should not understand 'filial' to mean merely the young doing physical tasks for their parents, or giving them food and wine when it is available."

9. 子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發。回也,不愚。」

語譯:先生說:「我和顏回言,整日他沒有反問,像愚魯人一般。待他退下,我省察他的私人言行,對我所言,甚能發揮。回呀!他實在是不愚呀!」

翻譯:

Confucius said: "I can talk with Hui for a whole day without him differing with me in any way--as if he is stupid. But when he retires and I observe his personal affairs, it is quite clear that he is not stupid."[Comment] Hui (Yen Yüan) is Confucius' favorite disciple, who is praised in many passages of the Analects. He died at a young age, probably around thirty, a fact which Confucius lamented.

The Master asked, 'I can speak to Hui all day without his disagreeing with me in any way. Thus he would seem to be stupid.  However, when I take a closer look at what he does in private after he has withdrawn from my presence, I discover that it does, in fact, throw light on what I said. Hui is not stupid after all.'

10. 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」 語譯:先生說:「要觀察他因何去做一件事,再觀察他如何般去做,再觀察他做此事時心情如何,安與不安。如此般觀察,那人再向何處藏匿呀!那人再向何處藏匿呀!」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Look at the means a man employs, observe the path he takes and examine where he feels at home.[3]  In what way is a man's true character hidden from view?  In what way is a man's true character hidden from view?'

Confucius said: "See a person's means (of getting things). Observe his motives. Examine that in which he rests. How can a person conceal his character? How can a person conceal his character?"[Comment] People think that they are successfully hiding the devious plots that are going on in their minds. But as the Doctrine of the Mean teaches, "The sincerity on the inside shows on the outside." When someone is deceitful, everyone knows it. When someone is good and honest, everyone knows it.

11. 子曰:「溫故而知新,可以為師矣。」

語譯:先生說:「能從溫習舊知中開悟出新知,乃可作為人師了。」研釋:本章新故合一,教學合一,溫故必求知新,能學然後能教。若僅務於記誦稗販,不能開新,即不足以任教,義蘊深長。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'A man is worthy of being a teacher who gets to know what is new by keeping fresh in his mind what he is already familiar with.'

Confucius said: "Reviewing what you have learned and learning anew, you are fit to be a teacher."

12. 子曰:「君子不器。」

語譯:先生說:「一個君子不像一件器具(只供某一種特定的使用)。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'The gentleman is no vessel.'[4] 

Confucius said: "The Superior Man is not a utensil."

[Comment] The Superior Man is not a technician, to be used by others to do a single job. On another level, his mind is not narrowly oriented by a specific task. The chün-tzu thinks broadly and does not limit himself quickly into a certain world-view, and cannot easily be used as a cog in someone else's machine.

13. 子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」

語譯:子貢問如何才是君子,先生說:「君子做事在說話前,然後才照他做的說。」研析:行在言先,言隨行後。

翻譯:

Tzu-kung asked about the gentleman.  The Master said, 'He puts his words into action before allowing his words to follow his action.'

Tzu Kung asked about the character of the Superior Man. Confucius said, "First he practices what he preaches and then he follows it."

14. 子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

語譯:先生說:「君子待人忠信,但不阿私。小人以阿私相結,但不忠信。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'The gentleman enters into associations but not cliques; the small man enters into cliques but not associations.'

Confucius said: "The Superior Man is all-embracing and not partial. The inferior man is partial and not all-embracing."

15. 子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」

語譯:先生說:「僅向外面學,不知用思想,終於迷惘了。僅知用思想,不向外面學,那又危殆了。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'If one learns from others but does not think, one will be bewildered. If, on the other hand, one thinks but does not learn from others, one will be in peril.'

Confucius said: "To study and not think is a waste. To think and not study is dangerous."

16. 子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也已!」

語譯:先生說:「專向反對的一端用力,那就有害了。」 

研釋:異端,一事必有兩頭,如一線必有兩端,由此達彼。若專就此端言,則彼端成為異端,從彼端視此端亦然。孔子平日言學,常兼舉兩端,如言仁常兼言禮,或兼言知。又如言質與文,學與思,此皆兼舉兩端,即《中庸》所謂執其兩端。執其兩端,則自見有一中道。中道在全體中見。僅治一端,則偏而不中矣。故中庸曰:「執其兩端用其中於民。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'To attack a task from the wrong end can do nothing but harm.'

Confucius said: "To throw oneself into strange teachings is quite dangerous."

17. 子曰:「由!誨女知之乎?知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」

語譯:先生說:「由呀!我教你怎様算知道吧!你知道你所知,又能同時知道你所不知,才算是知。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Yu, shall I tell you what it is to know.  To say you know when you know, and to say you do not when you do not, that is knowledge.'

Confucius said: "Yu, shall I teach you about knowledge? What you know, you know, what you don't know, you don't know. This is knowledge."[Comment] The stage of "knowing what you know and knowing what you don't know" is not easy to attain. It has been noted in the teachings of other religious traditions to be a very high level of attainment.

18. 子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤;多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」

語譯:子張問如何求祿位。先生說:「多聽別人說話,把你覺得可疑的放在一旁,其餘的,也要謹慎地說,便少過。多看別人行事,把你覺得不安的,放在一旁,其餘的,也要謹慎地行,便少悔。說話少過失,行事少後悔,謀求祿仕之道,就在這裡面了。」

翻譯:

Tzu-chang was studying with an eye to an official career.  The Master said, 'Use your ears widely but leave out what is doubtful; repeat the rest with caution and you will make few mistakes. Use your eyes widely and leave out what is hazardous; put the rest into practice with caution and you will have few regrets.  When in your speech you make few mistakes and in your action you have few regrets, an official career will follow as a matter of course.'

Tzu Chang was studying to get an upgrade in status. Confucius said, "Listen widely to remove your doubts and be careful when speaking about the rest and your mistakes will be few. See much and get rid of what is dangerous and be careful in acting on the rest and your causes for regret will be few. Speaking without fault, acting without causing regret: 'upgrading' consists in this."

19. 哀公問曰:「何為則民服?」孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服;舉枉錯諸直,則民不服。」

語譯:魯哀公問:「如何使民眾服從?」孔子對道:「舉用正直的,放置在邪曲的上面,民眾便服了。舉用邪曲的,放置在正直的上面,民眾便不服了。」研釋:喜直惡枉,乃人心共有之美德,人君能具此德,人自服而化之。 

翻譯:

Duke Ai asked, 'What must I do before the common people will look up to me?'Confucius answered, ' Raise the straight and set them over the crooked[5] and the common people will look up to you. Raise the crooked and set them over the straight and the common people will not look up to you.'

The Duke of Ai asked: "How can I make the people follow me?" Confucius replied: "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and the people will follow you. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and the people will not follow you."

20. 季康子問:「使民敬、忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而教不能,則勸。」 

語譯:季康子說:「如何可使民眾敬其上,忠其上,並肯加倍努力呢?」先生說:「你對他們能莊重,他們自會敬你。你讓他們能孝其老,慈其幼,他們自會忠於你。你拔用他們中間的善人,並教導他們中間不能的人,他們自會互相勸勉,加倍努力了。」

翻譯:

Chi K'ang Tzu asked,' How can one inculcate in the common people the virtue of reverence, of doing their best and of enthusiasm?'The Master said,' Rule over them with dignity and they will be reverent; treat them with kindness and they will do their best; raise the good and instruct those who are backward and they will be imbued with enthusiasm.'

Chi K'ang Tzu asked: "How can I make the people reverent and loyal, so they will work positively for me?" Confucius said, "Approach them with dignity, and they will be reverent. Be filial and compassionate and they will be loyal. Promote the able and teach the incompetent, and they will work positively for you."

21. 或謂孔子曰:「子奚不為政?」子曰:「書云:『孝乎惟孝、友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦為政,奚其為為政?」

語譯:有人對孔子說:「先生為何不從事政治呀!」先生說:「尚書裡有兩句話說:『孝啊!真是考啊!又能友愛及你的兄弟。』只要在家施行孝弟正當有條理,那也是從事政治了,如何才算是從事政治呀!」

研釋:孔子論政,常以政治為人道中一端,故處家中亦可謂有家政。孔門雖重政治,然更重人道,苟失為人之道,又何為政可言?此乃孔子在當時不願政之微意,而言之和婉,亦極斬截,此所以為聖人之言。

翻譯:

Someone said to Confucius, 'Why do you not take part in government?'The Master said, 'The Book of History says, "Oh! Simply by being a good son and friendly to his brothers a man can exert an influence upon government."[6] In so doing a man is, in fact, taking part in government. How can there be any question of his having actively to "take part in government"?'

Someone asked Confucius: "Why are you not involved in government?" Confucius said, "What does the Book of History say about filial piety?  'Righteous by being a good son and friendly to ones brothers and sisters you can have an effect on government.' Since this is also 'doing government,' why do I need to do 'doing government?'"

22. 子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」

語譯:先生說:「人類若相互間無信心,我不知道還能做得什麽。正如車上的轅木與橫木間,若沒有了個靈活的接筍,無論大車小車,試問如何般行進呢?」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'I do not see how a man can be acceptable who is untrustworthy in word?  When a pin is missing in the yoke-bar of a large cart or in the collar-bar of a small cart, how can the cart be expected to go?'

Confucius said: "If a person lacks trustworthiness, I don't know what s/he can be good for. When a pin is missing from the yoke-bar of a large wagon, or from the collar-bar of a small wagon, how can it go?"

23. 子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益,可知也;周因於殷禮,所損益,可知也;其或繼周者,雖百世可知也。」

語譯:子張問:「十世以後的事,可預知嗎?」先生說:「殷代因襲於夏禮,有些損益的,現在仍可考而知。周代因襲於殷禮,有些損益的,現在亦可考而知。將來有繼周而起的,縱使一百世之久,我們也該可以預知呀。」

研釋:本章所說的「損益」,有點像加減變動之意。本章所說的「禮」,兼指一切政治制道、社會風俗、人心之內在,以及日常生活之現於外表,而又為當時大群體所共遵共守者。孔子論學極重禮,人類社會亦時時必有禮,此乃歷史之常。但禮必隨時代而變,此乃禮之時。而變中仍存有不變者,此乃禮之意。本章子章之問,蓋有意於制作一代之禮法。另外,我們知道,孔子是心儀周公的,但孔子說:「其或繼周者」,表示孔子絕對意識到周朝會亡。孔子的確了不起。試看今天,走狗都在高呼大國勃起千秋萬世,爭相歌功頌德!

翻譯:

Tzu-chang asked, 'Can ten generations hence be known?'The Master said, 'The Yin built on the rites of the Hsia. What was added and what was omitted can be known. The Chou built on the rites of the Yin. What was added and what was omitted can be known. Should there be a successor to the Chou, even a hundred generations hence can be known.'

Tzu Chang asked whether the state of affairs ten generations hence could be known. Confucius said, "The Shang based its propriety on that of the Yin, and what it added and subtracted is knowable. The Chou has based its propriety on that of the Shang and what it added and subtracted is knowable. In this way, what continues from the Chou, even if 100 generations hence, is knowable."

24. 子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不為,無勇也。」

語譯:先生說:「不是你當祭的鬼而祭他,這是你存心諂媚。遇見你該當做的事不做,這是你沒有勇氣。」

研釋:本章連舉兩事,若不倫類,然皆直指人心。蓋社會種種不道與非義,皆由人心病痛中來,如諂與無勇皆是。孔門重仁,乃心教最要綱領。中共本來就不是香港民主黨當祭的鬼,張文光何俊人劉慧卿楊森李永達去祭它,就是存心諂媚。民主黨為了爭取保守的香港人支持而放棄爭取真普選,就是無勇。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'To offer sacrifice to the spirit of an ancestor not one's own is obsequious.'Faced with what is right, to leave it undone shows a lack of courage.'

Confucius said: "To worship to other than one's own ancestral spirits is brown-nosing. If you see what is right and fail to act on it, you lack courage." 



[1]  This line is from Ode 297 where it describes a team of horses going straight ahead without swerving to left or right.

[2]  The expression erk thai is very obscure and the translation is tentative. 

[3]  cf. ‘The benevolent man feels at home in benevolence.’ (IV.2.)

[4]  i.e., he is no specialist, as every vessel is designed for a specific purpose only. 

[5]  Cf XII.22

[6]  This is from a lost chapter of the Shu Ching but has been incorporated in a modified form into the spurious Chiin shih chapter. See Shu citing chu shu, 18.10a. 

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