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John | 14th Sep 2010, 07:32 AM | 中國學術、歷史+創作小故事 | (4638 Reads)
語譯是錢穆教授的作品。Black色的譯文是劉殿爵教授的作品。Pink色的譯文和評論是Charles Muller的作品。

1. 子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎?」

語譯:先生說:「學能時時反覆習之,我心不很覺欣暢嗎?有許多朋友從遠而來,我心不更感快樂嗎?別人不知道我,我心不存些微怫鬱不歡之意,不真是一位修養有成德的君子嗎?」

研釋:錢穆教授有些語譯,故意保留原文,以免只勉強譯出其中一義而失去其他意義。習之:人之為學,當日復日,時復時,年復年,反覆不已,老而無倦。

 

我起初讀錢穆教授的語譯時,還以為他譯得不好,譯成「反覆習之」,真是「無形無款」呀!另一位內地學者譯成「將學到的東西不斷用於實踐不是一件很開心的事嗎?」,將「習」譯成「用於實踐」,真是「有形有款」,孔子說話似乎有點像馬克斯了,而且還是「不斷地用於實踐」(有點壓迫感!),為甚麽這樣就會「開心」?我不覺得這樣會開心。

「習」可以是「實習/實踐」,例如將所學用來做科學實驗、意見調查、實物創作、組織工作、與人辯論、發表文章等。「習」也可以指和「習慣」相近的意思,即時刻將所學身體力行、浸淫在所學之中,例如將所學不斷在心中反覆思考、質疑(所謂「學問」)、體會以及和其他經驗/知識印證,這也是一種「習」,但卻是內在的。想像一下,人在所學浸淫,用所學實踐、又不斷體會所學,不是有「樂」嗎?例如我寫這個網誌,將自己微末的一點知識寫出來,我當然是「樂」的,否則就不寫了。您在其他事上也有類似的感覺嗎?

「習」字在古時自有本身的涵義。曾子說:「傳而不習乎」,王陽明著有《傳習錄》,古人似乎認為「習」是「學」之後理所當然的一個較漫長的過程。「習」字的涵義包括「實習」、「練習」,但遠比「實習」、「練習」豐富,還包括不斷思考、體會、實踐、印證等融入生活習慣的浸淫,用較「現代」的語言說,「習」包括「內化」之意。

今天,由於白話愛用雙字詞,我們說「學習」,其實只側重「學」或者「學成」的意思(不是注重「成學」,是注重「學成」),「習」那種天天累積融會貫通的涵義被遺忘了。人人爭趕「速成班」,個個羡慕「資優兒」。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Is it not a pleasure, having learned something, to try it out at due intervals? Is it not a joy to have friends come from afar? Is it not gentlemanly not to take offence when others fail to appreciate your abilities?' (By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "Isn't it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned? Isn't it also great when friends visit from distant places? If people do not recognize me and it doesn't bother me, am I not a Superior Man?"

[Comment] Superior Man is a common English translation for the Chinese term chün-tzu/jun-zi (君子) which originally means "Son of a Prince"--thus, someone from the nobility. In the Analects, Confucius imbues (注入;浸透)the term with a special meaning (孔子給君子這個名詞注入特別的意義). Though sometimes used strictly in its original sense, it also refers to a person who has made significant progress in the Way (Tao) (道)of self-cultivation(修養), by practicing Righteousness, by loving treatment of parents, respect for elders, honesty with friends, etc. Though the chün-tzu/jun-zi (君子) is clearly a highly advanced human being, he is still distinguished from the category of sage (sheng-jen/sheng-ren)(聖人), who is, in the Analects more of a "divine being," usually a model from great antiquity(從古代流傳到今天的楷模).

The character of the Superior Man(君子), in contrast to the sage(聖人), is being taught as a tangible model for all in the here and now. And although many descriptions of the requirements for chün-tzu/jun-zi (君子) status seem quite out of our reach(我們難以企及的), there are many passages where Confucius labels a contemporary(同時代的人), or one of his disciples a "Superior Man," intending a complement. Thus, the categorization is not so rigid. One might want to compare the term "Superior Man" to the Buddhist bodhisattva(菩薩), in that both are the models for the tradition, both indicate a very high stage of human development as technical terms, yet both may be used colloquially (用白話說) to refer to a "really good person."

2. 有子曰:「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣;不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本與!」

語譯:有子說:「若其人是一個孝弟之人,而會心存喜好犯上的,那必很少了。若其人不喜好犯上,而去作亂的,就更不會有了。君子專力在事情的根本處,根本建立起,道就由此而生了。考悌即是道的根本。」

翻譯:

Yu Tzu[1] /You Zi (有子)said, 'It is rare for a man whose character is such that he is good as a son and obedient as a young man to have the inclination to transgress against his superiors; it is unheard of for one who has no such inclination to be inclined to start a rebellion.  The gentleman devotes his efforts to the roots, for once the roots are established, the Way will grow therefrom.  Being good as a son and  obedient as a young man is, perhaps, the root of a man's character.'[i][2] (By D. C. Lau)

Yu Tzu/You Zi (有子) said: "There are few who have developed themselves filially and fraternally who enjoy offending their superiors. Those who do not enjoy offending superiors are never troublemakers. The Superior Man concerns himself with the fundamentals. Once the fundamentals are established, the proper way (tao) appears. Are not filial piety and obedience to elders fundamental to the enactment of jen/ren(仁)?"

[Comment] The Chinese term jen/ren (仁) has been translated into English as "humanity," "benevolence," "goodness," "Perfect Goodness," etc. It is a difficult concept to translate because it doesn't really refer to any specific type of virtue(道德) or positive endowment(天賦)(不是指特定的道德或天賦), but refers to an inner capacity possessed by all human beings to do good, as human beings should. This is the reason some have translated it as "humanity." The problem with this translation is that it does not indicate the "goodness" implied by the term jen/ren(仁).

In the Chinese "essence-function" perception, jen/ren(仁) can be understood as the essence of all kinds of manifestations of virtuosity(是統攝諸德的名稱): wisdom, filial piety(孝), reverence(敬), courtesy, love, sincerity, etc., all of which are aspects, or functions of jen/ren(仁). Through one's efforts at practicing at the function of jen/ren(仁), one may enhance and develop one's jen/ren(仁), until one may be called a Superior Man, or even better, a "Person of jen/ren(仁者)." In the Analects, "person of jen/ren(仁者)" is an extremely high state, rarely acknowledged of any human being by Confucius.

3. 子曰:「巧言令色,鮮矣仁!」

語譯:先生說:「滿口說著討人喜歡的話,滿臉裝着討人喜歡的面色,(那樣的人)仁心就很少了。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'It is rare, indeed, for a man with cunning words and an ingratiating face to be benevolent.'(By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "Someone who is a clever speaker and maintains a 'too-smiley' face is seldom considered a person of jen/ren(仁者)."

4. 曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」

語譯:曾子說!「我每天常三次反省我自己。我替人謀事,沒有盡我的心嗎?我和朋友相交,有不信實的嗎?我所傳授於人的,有不是我自己所日常講習的嗎?」

翻譯:Tseng Tzu/Zeng Zi(曾子) said, 'Every day I examine myself on three counts.  In what I have undertaken on another's behalf, have I failed to do my best?  In my dealings with my friends have I failed to be trustworthy in what I say?  Have I passed on to others anything that I have not tried out myself? (By D. C. Lau)'

Tseng Tzu/Zeng Zi(曾子) said: "Each day I examine myself in three ways: in doing things for others, have I been disloyal? In my interactions with friends, have I been untrustworthy? Have not practiced what I have preached?"

5. 子曰:「道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。」

語譯:先生說:「領導一個能出千乘兵車的大國,臨事該謹慎專一,又要能守信。該節省用,以愛人為念。使用民力,要顧及他們的生產時間。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say; avoid excesses in expenditure and love your fellow men; employ the labour of the common people only in the right seasons.'(By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "If you would govern a state of a thousand chariots (a small-to-middle-size state), you must pay strict attention to business, be true to your word, be economical in expenditure and love the people. You should use them according to the seasons."

[Comment] "Usage of the people according to the seasons" is extremely important in an agriculture-based society, where planting, cultivating, or harvesting a certain crop during a certain few-day period can be critical. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods(春秋戰國時代) in China, selfish and aggressive warlords frequently pulled farmers off their land at important farming times, to use them for public works projects, or have them fight in the ruler's personal wars.


6. 子曰:「弟子,入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,凡愛眾,而親仁。 行有餘力,則以學文。」

語譯:先生說:「弟子在家則講孝道,出門則盡弟職,言行當謹慎信實,對人當泛愛,而親其有仁德者。如此修行有餘力,再向書本文字上用心。」

研釋:出外對人,要當「細佬」!今天很多人愛以「小弟」自稱呢,雖然他們實際上完全不覺得自己是「小弟」。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'A young man should be a good son at home and an obedient young man abroad, sparing of speech but trustworthy in what he says, and should love the multitude at large but cultivate the friendship of his fellow men.[3][i]  If he has any energy to spare from such action, let him devote it to making himself cultivated.'(By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "A young man should serve his parents at home and be respectful to elders outside his home. He should be earnest and truthful, loving all, but become intimate with jen/ren(仁). After doing this, if he has energy to spare, he can study literature and the arts."

[Comment] In the above-mentioned essence-function view, the development of one's proper relationship with one's parents and others around her/him is fundamental in life. Only after these things are taken care of is it proper to go off and play at whatever one likes--even if this "play" involves the serious study of some art form.

7. 子夏曰:「賢賢易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;與朋友交,言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。」

語譯:子夏說:「一個人能好人之賢德勝過好色之心,奉事父母能盡力,事君上能奉身盡職,交朋友能有信,這樣的人,縱使他自謙說未經學問,我必說他己有學問了。」

研釋:「好人之賢德勝過好色之心」!!!你是「好色之心」強還是「好賢德之心」強?

翻譯:

Tzu-hsia/Zi Jia (子夏)said, 'I would grant that a man has received instruction who appreciates men of excellence where other men appreciate beautiful women, who exerts himself to the utmost in the service of his parents and offers his person to the service of his lord, and who, in his dealings with his friends, is trustworthy in what he says, even though he may say that he has never been taught.'(By D. C. Lau)

Tzu Hsia/Zi Jia(子夏)said: "If you can treat the worthy as worthy without strain, exert your utmost in serving your parents, devote your whole self in serving your prince, and be honest in speech when dealing with your friends. Then even if someone says you are not learned (hsüeh/xue), I would say that you are definitely learned."

[Comment] In the Confucian tradition, learning (hsüeh/xue)(學) is more than intellectual, academic study, or the accumulation of facts (although this aspect is included). It is the process of manifesting one's jen/ren(仁) by developing-oneself in self-reflection through the various types of human relationships.

8. 子曰:「君子不重,則不威;學則不固。主忠信。無友不如己者。過,則勿憚改。」

語譯:先生說:「一個君子,不厚重,便不威嚴。能向學,可不固陋。行事當以忠信為主。莫和不如己的人交友。有了過失,不要怕改。」

研釋:「無友不如己者。」有很多解法,例如:「交友時要計較高下優劣」(但如果人人都只和勝過自己的人交友,便沒有人可以交友了)、「交友必須志同道合(如己)」、「交友時看對方的長處,從而改善自己。這是一種上進心(但不是結交有錢人、結交教授學者那種)」、「不應總抱著和不如己的人為友之心」,錢穆先生的語譯是故意保留原文的。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'A gentleman who lacks gravity does not inspire awe.  A gentleman who studies is unlikely to be inflexible.'

Make[4] it your guiding principle to do your best for others and to be trustworthy in what you say. Do not accept as friend anyone who is not as good as you.'When you make a mistake, do not be afraid of mending your ways.'(By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "If the Superior Man is not 'heavy,' then he will not inspire awe in others. If he is not learned, then he will not be on firm ground. He takes loyalty and good faith to be of primary importance, and has no friends who are not of equal (moral) caliber. When he makes a mistake, he doesn't hesitate to correct it."

[Comment] The Superior Man still makes mistakes. The difference between him and other people is that he rectifies his errors as soon as he becomes aware of them(知道錯誤後盡快改正).

9. 曾子曰:「慎終,追遠,民德歸厚矣。」 語譯:曾子說:「對死亡者的送終之禮能謹慎,對死亡己久者能不斷追思,這樣能使社會風俗道德日趨於篤厚。」

翻譯:

Tseng Tzu/Zeng Zi(曾子) said, 'Conduct the funeral of your parents with meticulous care and let not sacrifices to your remote ancestors be forgotten, and the virtue of the common people will incline towards fullness.'(By D. C. Lau)

Tseng Tzu/Zeng Zi(曾子) said: "When they are careful (about their parents) to the end and continue in reverence after (their parents) are long gone, the virtue of the people will return to its natural depth."

10. 子禽問於子貢曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政,求之與?抑與之與?子貢曰:「夫子溫﹑良﹑恭﹑儉﹑讓以得之。夫子之求之也,其諸異乎人之求之與?」

語譯:子禽問子貢道:「我們夫子每到一國,必須聞其國之政事,這是有心求到的呢?還是人家自願給他的呢?」子貢說:「我們夫子是以溫和、良善、恭莊、節制、謙讓五者之心得來的。我們夫子之求,總該是異乎別人家的求法吧!」

研釋:孔子的溫﹑良﹑恭﹑儉﹑讓,與巧言令色者所為,相去甚遠。人間自有不求自得之道。但孔子亦未嘗見用於時君,溫﹑良﹑恭﹑儉﹑讓,都是內心修養的自然流露。

翻譯:

Tzu-ch'in/Zi Qin(子禽) asked Tzu-kung/Zi Gong(子貢), 'When the Master arrives in a state, he invariably gets to know about its government. Does he seek this information? or is it given him?'

Tzu-kung/Zi Gong(子貢) said, 'The Master gets it through being cordial, good, respectful, frugal and deferential.  The way the Master seeks it is, perhaps, different from the way other men seek it.’ (By D. C. Lau)

Tzu Ch'in/Zi Qin(子禽) asked Tzu Kung/Zi Gong(子貢): "When our teacher (Confucius) arrives in any country, he invariably finds out everything about its government. Does he seek this information? Or is it given to him?"

Tzu Kung/Zi Gong(子貢) said, "Our teacher gets it by being cordial, upright, courteous, temperate and complaisant. His way of getting information is quite different from that of other men."

11. 子曰:「父在,觀其志;父沒,觀其行;三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

語譯:先生說:「父親在,做兒子的只看他志向。父死了,該看他行為。在三年內能不改他父親生時所為,這也算是孝了。」

翻譯:

The Master said, 'Observe what a man has in mind to do when his father is living, and then observe what he does when his father is dead.  If, for three years, he makes no changes to his father's ways, he can be said to be a good son.'5[5] (By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "When your father is alive, observe his will. When your father is dead observe his former actions. If, for three years you do not change from the ways of your father, you can be called a 'real son (hsiao/xiao).'"

[Comment] In terms of the development of the character of the human being, the most fundamental practice is that of "filial piety," the English translation of the Chinese hsiao/xiao(孝), which means to love, respect and take care of one's parents. Confucius believed that if people cultivated this innate tendency well, all other natural forms of human goodness would be positively affected by it.

12. 有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道,斯為美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」

語譯:有子說:「禮之運用,貴在能和。先王之道,其美處正在此,小事大事都得由此行。但也有行不通處。一意用和,不把禮作節限,也就行不通了。」

研釋:禮必和順於人心,斯為可貴。

翻譯:

Yu Tzu/You Zi(有子) said, 'Of the things brought about by the rites, harmony is the most valuable. Of the ways of the Former Kings, this is the most beautiful, and is followed alike in matters great and small, yet this will not always work: to aim always at harmony without regulating it by the rites simply because one knows only about harmony will not, in fact, work.’ (By D. C. Lau)

Yu Tzu/You Zi(有子) said: "In the actual practice of propriety, flexibility is important. This is what the ancient kings did so well--both the greater and the lesser used flexibility. Yet you should be aware: If you understand flexibility and use it, but don't structure yourself with propriety, things won't go well."

[Comment] Propriety is the English rendition of the Chinese li(禮). This is a word that also has a wide spectrum of meaning in Classical Chinese thought, and is difficult to translate by a single word. Its most basic meaning is that of "ritual" or "ceremony," referring to all sorts of rituals that permeated (遍及;充滿)early East Asian society. The most significant of course, would be wedding ceremonies and funerals. But there were also various agricultural rituals, coming-of-age rituals, coronations, etc. Confucius was an expert on the proper handling of all sorts of rituals.

The term li (禮)however, has, in the Analects, a much broader meaning than ritual, since it can also refer to the many smaller "ritualized" behavior patterns involved in day-to-day human interactions. This would include proper speech and body language according to status, age, sex--thus, "manners." In this sense, li (禮)means any action proper, or appropriate to the situation. For instance, in the modern context, I might go up and slap my friend on the back. But I certainly wouldn't do that to my professor, or to a student in my class whom I don't know very well.

In the Analects, li(禮), as a general category, is clearly defined in a relationship with jen/ren(仁), where jen is the inner, substantial goodness of the human being, and li is the functioning of jen/ren(仁) in the manifest world. That is to say, li(禮) is Righteousness, filial piety, fraternal respect, familial affection, etc.

13. 有子曰:「信近於義,言可複也。恭近於禮,遠恥辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。」

語譯:有子說:「與人約而求信,必先求近義,始可踐守。向人恭敬,必先求合禮,始可遠於恥辱。遇有所因依時,必先擇其可親者,亦可依若宗主了。」

研釋:與人交往,信與恭皆美德,然當近義合禮。有所因依亦不可非,但必擇其可親。

翻譯:

Yu Tzu/You Zi(有子) said, ‘To be trustworthy in word is close to being moral in that it enables one's words to be repeated.[6] To be respectful is close to being observant of the rites in that it enables one to stay clear of disgrace and insult.  If, in promoting good relationship with relatives by marriage, a man manages not to lose the good will of his own kinsmen, he is worthy of being looked up to as the head of the clan.’[7](By D. C. Lau)

Tzu Yu/You Zi(有子) said: "When your own trustworthiness is close to Righteousness, your words can be followed. When your show of respect is according to propriety, you will be far from shame and disgrace. If you have genuine affection within your family, you can become an ancestor."

[Comment] Righteousness with a capital "R" is my rendering of the Chinese i/yi(義), which has also commonly been translated as righteousness. Although not quite as essential a concept as jen/ren(仁), it is a strongly internalized (內化的)human capacity. Being attuned to Righteousness allows people to do the proper thing in the proper situation, to give each person, place and thing its proper due.

14. 子曰:「君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可謂好學也已。」

語譯:先生說:「君子,飲食不求飽,居處不求安,敏疾地做事,謹慎地說話,又能常向有道之人來辨正自己的是非,這樣可算是好事了。」

翻譯:The Master said, ‘The gentleman seeks neither a full belly nor a comfortable home.  He is quick in action but cautious in speech.[8]  He goes to men possessed of the Way to be put right.  Such a man can be described as eager to learn.’ (By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "When the Superior Man eats he does not try to stuff himself; at rest he does not seek perfect comfort; he is diligent in his work and careful in speech. He avails himself to people of the Tao(道)and thereby corrects himself. This is the kind of person of whom you can say, 'he loves learning.'"

15. 子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若貧而樂,富而好禮者也。」子貢曰:「詩云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言詩已矣,告諸往而知來者。」

語譯:子貢說:「貧人能不諂,富人能不驕,如何呀?」先生說:「這也算好了,但不如貧而能樂道,富而知好禮,那就更好了。」子貢說:「詩經上曾說過:「像切呀,磋呀,呀,磨呀」不就是這個意思嗎?」先生說:「賜呀!像這樣,才可和你談詩了。告訴你這裡,你能知道那裡。」

翻譯:

15.  Tzu-kung/Zi Gong(子貢) said, '"Poor without being obsequious(諂媚的;奉承的;拍馬屁的), wealthy without being arrogant." What do you think of this saying?'

The Master said, 'That will do, but better still "Poor yet delighting in the Way,[2] wealthy yet observant of the rites."

'Tzu-kung/Zi Gong(子貢) said, 'The Odes (詩經)say,

'Like bone cut, like horn polished,

Like jade carved, like stone ground.

Is not what you have said a case in point?'

The Master said, 'Ssu/Ci(賜), only with a man like you can one discuss the Odes. Tell such a man something and he can see its relevance to what he has not been told.'(By D. C. Lau)

Tzu Kung/Zi Gong(子貢) asked: "What do you think of a poor man who doesn't grovel or a rich man who isn't proud?" Confucius said, "They are good, but not as good as a poor man who is satisfied and a rich man who loves propriety." Tzu Kung/Zi Gong(子貢)said, "The Book of Odes(詩經)says:

Like cutting and filing,

Grinding and polishing This simile for the process of self-perfection is found often in Confucian texts.

Is this what you are talking about?" Confucius said, "Ah, now I can begin to discuss the Book of Odes with Tz'u. I give him a hint and he gets the whole point."

16. 子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

語譯:先生說:「不要愁別人不知我,該愁我不知人。」

研釋:知人十分可貴。別人不知自己則不用介意,有眼光的人不多。非孔子不知堯舜之當祖述,非孟子則不知孔子之聖。

翻譯:

The Master said, 'It is not the failure of others to appreciate your abilities that should trouble you, but rather your failure to appreciate theirs.'(By D. C. Lau)

Confucius said: "I am not bothered by the fact that I am unknown. I am bothered when I do not know others." 



[1]  For names of persons and places see Glossary.

[2]  Numbers in square brackets refer to Textual Notes on p. 134

[3]  For the contrast of jen (fellow men) with chung (multitude) see XVH.6 and for a discussion of the word yen see Introduction pp. 14 and 17.

[4]  The whole of what follows is found also in IX.25 while the opening sentence is found also in XII.10.

[5]  This sentence is found again in IV.20. Cf. also in XIX.18.

[6]  For a discussion of the interpretation of this sentence see D. C. Lau, ' On the expression fu yen', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XXXVI, 2, (1973), PP- 424-33.

[7]  The sense of this last sentence is rather obscure. The present translation, though tentative, is based on a comment of Cheng Hsuan's on the woid yin in the Chou li (Chou li chu shu, 10.24b ).

[8]  cf. IV.24.

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