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John | 31st Aug 2010, 12:43 PM | 法律英語 | (508 Reads)
The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Guarding State Secrets (2010) was amended on 29 April 2010, and will come into force on 1 October 2010.  It will affect both foreign businesses operating in China and domestic entities.

第四条  保守国家秘密的工作(以下简称保密工作),实行积极防范、突出重点、依法管理的方针,既确保国家秘密安全,又便利信息资源合理利用。

法律、行政法规规定公开的事项,应当依法公开。

Article 4           The work of guarding state secrets (hereinafter referred to as the “secrecy work”) shall be carried out under the guideline of “actively preventing leakage, giving prominence to key matters and managing state secrets according to law”, so that state secrets are kept safe while information resources are reasonably utilized.

Matters that shall be disclosed as required by laws and administrative regulations shall be disclosed according to law.

Observation: Article 4 (paragraph 2) stipulates that information required to be publicised by laws and administrative regulations should be made available to the public.  Accordingly, this established the right to access public information as a principle while emphasizing the protection of state secrets (paragraph 1).   It remains to be seen how a proper balance can be stricken between the two.

第九条 下列涉及国家安全和利益的事项,泄露后可能损害国家在政治、经济、国防、外交等领域的安全和利益的,应当确定为国家秘密:

(一)国家事务重大决策中的秘密事项;
(二)国防建设和武装力量活动中的秘密事项;
(三)外交和外事活动中的秘密事项以及对外承担保密义务的秘密事项;
(四)国民经济和社会发展中的秘密事项;
(五)科学技术中的秘密事项;
(六)维护国家安全活动和追查刑事犯罪中的秘密事项;
(七)经国家保密行政管理部门确定的其他秘密事项。
政党的秘密事项中符合前款规定的,属于国家秘密。

Article 9           The following matters which relate to the national security and interests and the leakage of which may damage the national security and interests in the field of politics, economy, national defense, foreign affairs, etc. shall be determined as state secrets:

1. Classified matters involved in the key policy decisions on state affairs;
2. Classified matters involved in the national defense construction and armed force activities;
3. Classified matters involved in the diplomatic and foreign affair activities and classified matters involved in the state’s international obligation of secrecy;
4. Classified matters involved in the national economic and social development;
5. Classified matters involved in science and technology;
6. Classified matters involved in the activities of maintaining national security and investigating criminal offences; and
7. Others classified matters as determined by the state secrecy administrative department.
A political party’s classified matters which conform to the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be state secrets.

Observation: Article 9 sets a limit on the scope of state secrets, but the scope is somehow broad and vague. 

第十三条 确定国家秘密的密级,应当遵守定密权限。

中央国家机关、省级机关及其授权的机关、单位可以确定绝密级、机密级和秘密级国家秘密;设区的市、自治州一级的机关及其授权的机关、单位可以确定机密级和秘密级国家秘密。具体的定密权限、授权范围由国家保密行政管理部门规定。

机关、单位执行上级确定的国家秘密事项,需要定密的,根据所执行的国家秘密事项的密级确定。下级机关、单位认为本机关、本单位产生的有关定密事项属于上级机关、单位的定密权限,应当先行采取保密措施,并立即报请上级机关、单位确定;没有上级机关、单位的,应当立即提请有相应定密权限的业务主管部门或者保密行政管理部门确定。

公安、国家安全机关在其工作范围内按照规定的权限确定国家秘密的密级。

Article 13 The classification levels of state secrets shall be determined within the powers to determine state secrets.

Central state organs, provincial organs and organs or entities authorized by them shall have the powers to determine state secrets at the top-secret level, the secret level and the confidential level. Organs of districted cities and autonomous prefectures and organs or entities authorized by them shall have the powers to determine state secrets at the secret level and the confidential level. The specific powers to determine state secrets and scope of authorization shall be prescribed by the state secrecy administrative department.

Where an organ or entity executes a state secrete determined by its superior and needs to classify the state secret, it shall follow the classification level of the executed state secret. Where an organ or entity considers that the determination of classification level of a state secret which arises in the organ or entity is within the powers of its superior, it shall take secrecy measures in advance and report it immediately to the superior for determination. If it has no superior, it shall immediately apply to the competent business department or secrecy administrative department which has the corresponding determination powers.

The public security and national security organs shall, within their respective scopes of work, determine the classification levels of state secrets within the prescribed powers.

Observation: Both the central and provincial governments can determine/designate all levels of state secrets, i.e. state secrets at top secret level, secret level and confidential level(绝密级、机密级和秘密级国家秘密).  Municipal governments can determine high-level (secret level) and normal-level (confidential level) state secrets(机密级和秘密级国家秘密), but not top-level state secrets(绝密级国家秘密). 

第二十四条 机关、单位应当加强对涉密信息系统的管理,任何组织和个人不得有下列行为:
(一)将涉密计算机、涉密存储设备接入互联网及其他公共信息网络;
(二)在未采取防护措施的情况下,在涉密信息系统与互联网及其他公共信息网络之间进行信息交换;
(三)使用非涉密计算机、非涉密存储设备存储、处理国家秘密信息;
(四)擅自卸载、修改涉密信息系统的安全技术程序、管理程序;
(五)将未经安全技术处理的退出使用的涉密计算机、涉密存储设备赠送、出售、丢弃或者改作其他用途。

Article 24 Organs and entities shall strengthen the management of secret-related information systems, and no organization or individual shall:

1. Connect any secret-related computer or storage device to the Internet or any other public information network;
2. Exchange message between a secret-related information system and the Internet or any other public information network without taking any protective measures;
3. Store or process state secret information by using any computer or storage device which is not a secret-related computer or storage device;
4. Uninstall or modify the security technique program or management program of a secret-related information system without permission; or
5. Present, sell, abandon or use for any other purpose any secret-related computer or storage device which has ceased to be used but not undergone treatment by security techniques.

Observation: Article 24 sets out prohibitions on mismanagements of computer information systems that may cause accidental disclosure of state secrets. 

第二十八条 互联网及其他公共信息网络运营商、服务商应当配合公安机关、国家安全机关、检察机关对泄密案件进行调查;发现利用互联网及其他公共信息网络发布的信息涉及泄露国家秘密的,应当立即停止传输,保存有关记录,向公安机关、国家安全机关或者保密行政管理部门报告;应当根据公安机关、国家安全机关或者保密行政管理部门的要求,删除涉及泄露国家秘密的信息。

Article 28 Operators and service providers of the Internet or any other public information network shall cooperate with the public security organs, the national security organs and the procuratorial organs in the investigation of secret leakage cases. Where any operator or service provider finds that any information disclosed via the Internet or any other public information network involves any state secret, it shall immediately stop transmitting it, keep the relevant records, and report to the public security organ, national security organ or secrecy administrative department. Operators and service providers shall delete information which involves state secrets as required by the public security organs, the national security organs or the secrecy administrative departments.

Observation: Article 28 requires an operator or a service provider of the Internet or any other public information network to cooperate with the police, the state security institutions or the procuratorates by ceasing the transfer/transmission of information, preserving evidence, and filing reports to the authority. 

第三十条  机关、单位对外交往与合作中需要提供国家秘密事项,或者任用、聘用的境外人员因工作需要知悉国家秘密的,应当报国务院有关主管部门或者省、自治区、直辖市人民政府有关主管部门批准,并与对方签订保密协议。

Article 30         Where an organ or entity needs to provide any state secret in foreign contact or cooperation or any overseas person appointed or employed by an organ or entity needs to have access to any state secret due to his work, the organ or entity shall report to the competent department of the State Council or the people’s government of the relevant province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government for approval, and enter into a secrecy agreement with the other party.

第三十四条  从事国家秘密载体制作、复制、维修、销毁,涉密信息系统集成,或者武器装备科研生产等涉及国家秘密业务的企业事业单位,应当经过保密审查,具体办法由国务院规定。机关、单位委托企业事业单位从事前款规定的业务,应当与其签订保密协议,提出保密要求,采取保密措施。

Article 34 Enterprises or public institutions engaging in the production, reproduction, maintenance or destruction of state secret carriers, the integration of secret-related information systems, the scientific research or manufacturing of weaponry or any other business involving state secrets shall be subject to secrecy vetting. The specific measures shall be formulated by the State Council.


An organ or entity which entrusts any of the above-mentioned businesses to an enterprise or a public institution shall enter into a secrecy agreement with the latter, clarify the secrecy requirements and take secrecy measures.

Observation: Articles 30 and 34 require an organ or entity to sign a secrecy agreement with any third party (an individual, enterprise, or institution) that is allowed to have access to any state secret in its work.  As such, foreign entities involved in projects with organs/entities possessing state secrets are likely to be required to sign such agreements more often in the future.

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