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John | 12th Jan 2010, 07:21 AM | 會考英語Paper 1A (Reading) | (693 Reads)

拆解推斷題(drawing an inference question),要明白三點:

1.          推斷題要求你推斷/斷定/理解文中某個想法(a particular idea in the text)或者涉及全文的主要想法(main idea)。

2.          擬題員(examination setter; test-maker)不會笨得問你What is the main idea of text A?  他會將一部份main idea放在題目裡,另一部份main idea 放在選項(answer choice; option)裡。

3.          為了分出學生的高低,擬題員會設計幾個distractor(錯誤的選擇),Distractors do not correctly express the main idea of the passage, but they SEEM to be correct or relevant. (這些distractor都很「仿真」,貎似正確(但其實錯誤),或者貎似有關(「有關」並不一定正確!)。) 

舉英文例子之前,先用中文說明,或可令你的印象更深刻。

l   政府的高鐵西九走線方案,引發全港多處地方暴動,包括旺角、大角咀、石崗、中環、深水埗和屯門。全港暴動(只是說多處暴動)

l   中區警署和西環警署被市民包圍,抗議警方「看不見」深圳疑似公安越境拖走香港人禁錮,但能在個多月後突然「看見」陳巧文襲警。有些警員有視障(「視障」和「看不見」貎似有關,但文中說的「誣告」和「假裝看不見」和視障無關)

l   香港行政長官曾蔭權的施政缺乏長遠眼光,一心想胡混到任期結束,連中央的溫家寶總理都忍不了,公開指示曾蔭權要解決香港的「深層次矛盾」。曾事後卻將「深層次矛盾」曲解為經濟矛盾,這件事令中央很不高興。曾蔭權將會解決香港的「深層次矛盾」(原文沒有提及這一點) 

下文的大意是:狼捕殺其他動物果腹,於是人類殺狼,令狼一度瀕臨絶種,但在保育努力下,現在有點起色。

先不用看整篇文章,請先看問題,再依着顏色看有關段落,然後才看全文一次。 

Question
1
According to the passage, the gray wolf 

(A)      has recovered most of its former range 

(B)       only existed in Minnesota

(C)       was nearly hunted to extinction in the United States(這是正確選項)

(D)      killed all of the livestock of early American settlersBottom of Form 

Recovery of the Gray Wolf
At one time in North America wolves ranged from coast to coast and from Canada to Mexico—the greatest natural range
(自然分布範圍)of any mammal except humans. Unfortunately, in industrialized human society, wolves seem to have met their match. Gray wolves began declining in the American West around 1870 as westward–moving settlers depleted the bison, deer and elk that wolves preyed on. Wolves then turned to sheep and cattle as prey. (雖然說wolves捕食牛羊,但不是D所說的wolves killed ALL of the livestock(殺死全部牲畜) Settlers and government trappers responded with intensive campaigns to wipe out the wolf. Approximately 1.5 million wolves were killed in various bounty-hunting campaigns carried out between 1850 and 1900. As recently as 1965 hunters were offered 20-50 dollars for every wolf they could kill.

Human excursions on their habitat and purposeful extermination campaigns had a devastating effect. Except for a small number of wolves in Minnesota, wolves were gone from the forty-eight states of the continental United States by the late 1920s.
(這是說wolves在美國四十八個州裡,只有Minnesota(明尼蘇達州)才有wolves,但不是B所說的全世界只有Minnesota才有wolves.  Bonly existed in Minnesota 就不對了,下文migrated from Canada(從加拿大遷徙到美國)就證明加拿大亦有wolvesWolves were listed as endangered in 1973, and remain so today, meaning that they are in danger of becoming extinct in all or part of their natural habitat. (原文的IN DANGER OF becoming extinct C was NEARLY hunted to extinction


However, there are some hopeful signs of a recovery in the wolf population. In the 1980s wolves began appearing in Montana, apparently having migrated from Canada. There are currently about sixty-five wolves in northwestern Montana.
  The work of the U.S. Forest Service in augmenting the wolf population in the continental United States with wolves from Canada could speed the recovery process. In the 1990s Forest Service employees released eight Canadian gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park and four in central Idaho. The goal was to have ten breeding pairs and their young—about 100 wolves—in each of three recovery areas northwest Montana, central Idaho and the Yellowstone national Park area by the early twenty-first century.

Preview
The wolf recovery program has been more successful than many people had anticipated. In 2003, a Forest Service survey determined that the gray wolf population had successfully settled into many of its new habitats
(捿息地). (這句只說wolf成功在多個新的棲息地住下來,並不是A所說的the gray wolf has recovered most of its former range已經在從前的自然分布範圍(former range)再次出現)) The survey counted 30 breeding pairs of wolves well distributed throughout the three states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. The indication that the wolf population was able to sustain itself allowed the federal government to change the status of the gray wolf from “endangered” to “threatened” in some parts of the western United States. While the wolves still require monitoring and protection, it appears that the gray wolf may be on the road to recovery.

emotion

Top of Form


(文章和問題均節錄自Inside the TOEFL IbtKaplan; Simon Schuste著。解釋是作者所加。)
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