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We have all kinds of medical incidents, such as loss of the deceased’s body, misidentification of infants, wrong administration of drugs, and operation on a wrong eye and a wrong patient, to name just a few. 


Vocabulary and expressions 

Part 1

l   Medical blunders (醫療失誤)

l   Public hospitals have come under fire recently for a series or medical blunders. (近期發生多宗醫療失誤,公立醫院備受批評。)

l   New Territories East hospital clusters (新界東醫院聯網)

l   Causes of medical blunders (醫療失誤的原因): aill-health of poor mental state of staff (員工健康或精神狀況欠佳); bfailure to follow safety procedures(未能遵守安全程序);cguidelines issued to staff being unworkable(向員工發出的指引難以運作);ddistraction from work or overwork(工作分心或過勞);ean unfair system under which the blame was not shared justly(制度不公平,責任並非公正分擔).

l   Efforts to reduce medical blunders(減少醫療事故的努力): ato establish a “just system” for the fair sharing of responsibility between individuals and shortcomings in the health system(建立「公正制度」,在個人和制度缺點之間公平確定責任的分擔);ba thorough review of the system to ensure patient safety(徹底檢討制度,確保病人的安全); cto establish a new disciplinary system to unite and standardize the punishment system at all public hospitals (建立新紀律制度,將各醫院的處罰制度統一和標準化); dto draw up a question checklist for determining liability(制訂檢核單,以確定責任);eto develop an open and fair culture so no incidents are covered up and the hospitals can learn from their mistakes(發展開放、公平文化,不隱瞞事故,各醫院從每次錯誤學習).

 Part 2

1.          a left mastectomy operation(左邊乳房切除手術)

2.          a proposed solution(建議的解決方法)/ propose a solution (建議解決方法)

3.          A set of quality management measures has also been put in place for doing A) (已制訂一套質量管理方法for doing A

4.          A was mistaken as B. / The doctor mistook A as B.(誤把A當作B。)

5.          accredit (認證;證可)

6.          acute hospitals under the Hospital Authority (醫管局轄下急症醫院)

7.          adhere to the patient-oriented service culture (堅持以病人為本的服務文化)

8.          an independent body which is not affiliated to any hospital(與任何醫院均無關聯的獨立組織)

9.          an inherent deficiency in the system(制度的內在不足)

10.      an investigation panel headed by an American expert (由一位美國專家領導的調查小組)

11.      avoid the recurrence of similar incidents in the future(避免同類事件日後發生)

12.      chemotherapy (化療)

13.      code of practice (工作守則;專業守則)

14.      consider setting up an independent mechanism to handle matters relating to medical incidents(考慮設立處理醫療事故的獨立機制)

15.      detect / identify weak points (「找出」弱點)

16.      enhance the transparency of A (提升A的透明度)

17.      ensure that the amount of compensation is fair and reasonable (確保賠償公平、合理)

18.      explain the incident to the patient and his family (向病人和他的家人解釋)

19.      file/lodge an appeal with ABC(向ABC投訴)

20.      frontline healthcare workers/staff 前線醫護人員

21.      handle all complaints fairly and impartially (公平、公正處理投訴)

22.      handle claims for compensation appropriately(適當處理索償)

23.      handle medical complaints properly(適當處理醫療投訴) 

24.      has all along attached great importance to medical services (一貫重視醫療服務)

25.      healthcare professionals (醫護專業人員)

26.      human error(人為過失)

27.      Information relating to the tests has also been computerised for greater accuracy and access efficiency.

28.      intensive care unit ICU 深切治療部

29.      intravenous injection (靜脈注射)

30.      is highly concerned about A(非常關注A

31.      maintain communication with the patient's/the deceased’s family on how to settle the matter, with a view to making the most suitable arrangements (與病人/死者家屬保持溝通,希望作最適當安排)

32.      make compensation to the patient concerned(賠償有關病人)

33.      makes public the causes and details of medical incidents in a transparent and open manner(以公平、開放的態度公佈醫療事故的起因與詳情)

34.      malignant(惡性的)

35.      medical negligence (醫療疏忽)

36.      members from different sectors of the community(來自社會各界的成員)

37.      operation on patients not scheduled for surgery(在沒有安排做手術的病人身上做手術)

38.      pathological test (病理測試)

39.      pneumonia 肺炎

40.      prevent recurrence through experience sharing among hospitals and their staff (醫院和員工互相分享經驗,防止歷史重演)

41.      probe a medical incident (調查醫療事故)

42.      procedures for verifying patients’ identity (病人身份認證程序)

43.      public hospitals (公立醫院)

44.      put in place guidelines/criteria/mechanism/procedures to ensure that(制訂指引/準則/機制/程序,確保…)

45.      report and appropriately handle medical incidents(報告並適當處理醫療事故)

46.      resolve complaints effectively (有效解決投訴)

47.      safeguard the integrity of Hong Kong’s public healthcare system (維護香港公共醫療體系的誠信)

48.      sample test (抽樣試驗)

49.      Secretary for Food & Health (食物及環境衛生局局長)

50.      simplify clinical procedures (簡化臨床程序)

51.      statutory body (法定機構)

52.      the Hong Kong Medical Association(香港醫學會)

53.      the Hospital Authority 醫院管理局 (註意:the Airport Authority

54.      the hospital in question(有關的醫院)

55.      the impact of an event (一件事件的影響)

56.      the Medical Council of Hong Kong(香港醫務委員會)

57.      the Prince of Wales Hospital (威爾斯親王醫院)

58.      the Queen Elizabeth Hospital (伊李莎伯醫院) 


1.      There is a need to set up a new and independent mechanism to handle medical complaints. (需要設立新和獨立的機制處理醫療投訴)

2.      The laboratories at the acute hospitals under the Hospital Authority have been accredited under the Hong Kong Laboratory Accreditation Scheme. (醫管局轄下急症醫院的實驗所均經香港實驗所認證計劃認可。) 

Model Essay

Operations on wrong patients, operations on wrong limbs and eyes, wrong administration of drugs or injection(給葯或注射錯誤), and even a case of wrong infant arising from misidentification error (分辨錯誤)in a neonatal intermediate care units (新生嬰兒中轉照顧室)── these are just a few of the large number of medical incidents reported to us in the news in the past few years.

One may also recall a case of loss of a deceased’s body in the mortuary(殮房遺失死者遺體), which arose out of sheer negligence(純粹疏忽), as evident in the lies subsequently told (事後謊言)by the mortuary staff in question.  We also have more than one case of frigid refusal (冰冷的拒絕) to requests for emergency medical treatment, with the staff concerned adhering rigidly to their guidelines for the purpose of avoiding liability at all costs(為了不負上任何責任就僵化的不惜一切代價死抱着指引不放), even at the expense of human lives(犠牲別人的生命亦在所不顧). 

To address(解決;處理)such medical incidents, most of which being just human errors (人為錯誤)made out of dereliction of duties(失職) and lack of flexibility (決乏彈性), the importance of a patient-oriented service culture (病人為先的服務文化)cannot be over-emphasized.

There are indeed many and varied (很多之意)solutions to medical incidents. (之後,可用上文的「補救方法」expressions繼續。另外,上文由於只作參考範例,「提出問題」佔兩段,「過渡到解決方法」佔一段,在試場實戰,「提出問題」應只佔一段(甚至可包括過渡到解決方法),第二段如要寫過渡解決方法也應以短為佳,之後,「解決方法」可寫三段,然後用一段總結,結尾要「準備一些」好的吸引的句子以便在實戰時修改放到考卷上。全文五至六段。)

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