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John | 4th Aug 2009, 21:49 PM | 英文文法 (1) | (4850 Reads)

在「句子的類別」一文談了句子的五個類別,類別的劃分主要看句子由甚麽子句組成,但一個子句(或簡單句simple sentence)本身又由甚麽組成呢?這就是本文要談的。 

有些文法書將「一個子句」叫作「一個主謂結構」。顧名思義,主要子句(main clause)或簡單句(simple sentence)由主語(subject)和謂語(predicate)組成。 

如上述,我們以主語subject和謂語predicate來分析句子。 

 主語

·         Subject一般放在predicate前面,作用是回答有關的子句「關於誰」或「關於甚麽」。

·         Subject一般以名詞(noun)或名詞相等詞(noun equivalent)作開頭詞(headword, 簡稱noun phrase NP)。

·         表中,紅色的都是主語。 

謂語

·         Predicate 一般放在subject後面,作用是將主語的一些事情告訴我們。

·         Predicate一般以動詞(verb)或動詞相等詞(verb equivalent)作開頭詞(headword, 簡稱verb phrase VP)。

·         表中,粗體的都是動詞, 多數帶起整過predicate 

用主語和謂語的概念分拆句子

請看以下一段,其中compound sentencecomplex sentence裡的clause都用/分開。為簡單起見,下表將 compound sentence(並列句)、compound sentence (複合句)和compound-complex sentence(並列複合句)都稱為multiple sentence (多重句)。 

這段的內容大致說,你晉升部門主管後,知道你的同事Jolin也曾希望晉升,她是有貢獻的員工,如果她支持你,對你的工作有幫助,那你會怎樣處理情況?以下紅色=主語;粗體=動詞。 

You were recently promoted to supervisor of the department / in which you have worked for five years. [Multiple sentence]
Then, you know / that your co-worker, Jolin, had hoped to get the position.[Multiple sentence]
She is a valuable worker.[Simple sentence]
It would help / if you could have her on your side.[Multiple sentence]
What will you do?[Simple sentence]
現在將上文句句子中個子句分拆成subject predicate
Clause

Subject

Predicate
You were recently promoted to supervisor of the department
youin which … have worked for five years.
Youknow /
your co-worker, Jolin, that …, had hoped to get the position.
She is a valuable worker.
It would help
youif … could have her on your side.
youWhat willdo?
除了主語和述語,第二張表沒有第一張表藍色Then。為簡單易明,主語和述語以外的詞叫「額外部分」(Extras) ,第一張表then的那句分析如下:
Sentence
ExtraSubjectPredicate
Then, youknow
 所以,句子的結構是:
Sentence
ExtraClause Sentence裡可以有數個clauses
 SubjectPredicate
 
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