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John | 3rd Aug 2009, 15:01 PM | 英文文法 (1) | (18929 Reads)

從結構上看,句子可分五類

·        簡單句(simple sentence

·        並列句(compound sentence

·        複合句(complex sentence

·        並列複合句(compound-complex sentence

·        省略句(elliptical sentence

 五種句子的結構

·        簡單句simple sentence由一個子句(clause)(即主謂結構)組成

例:He tried to talk to her.

·        並列句(compound sentence)由兩個或以上的(互不從屬的)對等子句coordinate clause組成and, but, for, or, so 等連接詞連接。

例:He tried to talk to her, but she refused to listen. (註:對等子句指互不從屬的子句,例如這例句可拆成兩句:He tried to talk to her.  She refused to listen.

·        複合句(complex sentence)由一個或以上的主要子句和一個從屬子句組成(註:從屬子句是子句,但擔任另一子句的一部分。)。

例:He tried to tell her what he wanted to do. 藍色的是名詞從屬子句,擔任受詞。

·        並列複合句(compound-complex sentence)是有兩個(或以上)的對等子句,而其中一個或以上的對等子句包含從屬子句。

例:I came home and they greeted me, after which I had dinner, which I greatly enjoyed.紅色=對等子句,藍色=從屬子句)

·        省略句(elliptical sentence)指省去了一些單詞的句子。

例:Well?” (可能是What do you want? What do you think? What do you know?的省略) 

Complex sentence較難掌握

五種句子,simple sentence, compound sentenceelliptical sentence應不難明白,要注意complex sentence,寫得最多和最有用處,明白了complex sentence, compound-complex sentence也不說自明。

以下是complex sentence(複合句)的更多例子,藍色=從屬子句,請留意這些從屬子句如何構成另一子句的一部分):

·        What he said is unknown.(主語,是is的主詞)

·        He knows what we don’t know. (賓語,是knows的受詞)

·        There is something in what he said. (介系詞的賓語,是in的受詞)

·        That is what he said. (表語,放在連繫動詞is之後作表語。)(註:跟在連繫動詞be之後修飾名詞的叫表語。)

·        Give me a reason why I should stay. (定語,修飾名詞a reason

·        This is the place where I hide the treasure. (定語, 修飾名詞the place

·        Turn off the light before you leave the hall. (狀語,修飾動詞片語turn off

·        Soon came the news that the United States had declared war on Japan. (同位語, that 開頭的子句與the news 同位(appositive to the news))  

題外話

有文法家將 compound sentence(並列句)、complex sentence (複合句)和compound-complex sentence(並列複合句)都稱為multiple sentence (多重句)。

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