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John | 27th Jul 2009, 09:31 AM | 英文文法 (1) | (16002 Reads)

 

連接詞(conjunctions)是連接語言單位(language units)的單詞。在以下各例,連接詞=bold; 被連接的語言單位=blue

 

連接單詞(Join one word with another

l   sang and danced

l   a rough but happy journey

l   either the boss or his secretary

連接片語(Join one phrase with another

ready to go and eager to start

連接子句(Join one clause with another

I haven't seen him since he left this morning.

(注意:由since 連接的I haven't seen him he left this morning都叫對等子句(coordinate clause),意指可以分別寫成獨立句。)

一個連接詞最多有多少個字?

以下的名稱不用記,要知道的概念是:連詞可以是一個單詞、兩個或以上連接的單詞,以及兩個或以上分開的單詞,見以下各例:

連詞可以是一個單詞(所謂「單詞連詞」)

And, if, or

兩個或以上連接的單詞(所謂「片語連詞」)

As if, as well as, in order that, as soon as

兩個或以上分開的單詞(所謂「關聨連詞」)

Not only…but also, both…and…, either…or

 

連接詞的分類

l   連接詞分為對等連接詞(coordinating conjunctions)和從屬連接詞(subordinate conjunctions);從屬連接詞再分三類:

l   對等連接詞(coordinating conjunctions)可以連接單詞、片語和子句。例子見上文第一張表。

l   從屬連接詞(subordinate conjunctions)連接兩個不對等的子句,一個叫主要子句(main clause),一個叫從屬子句(subordinate clause),從屬子句必須「從屬」而不能寫成獨立句子。(以下不用硬記,望一望得點概念即可,望的目的是希望自己造句時能「用番出嚟」。

對等連接詞(coordinating conjunctions

And, but, so, yet, still, either, or, neither, nor, than, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, as well as

從屬連接詞(subordinate conjunctions

l   用作引起名詞從屬子句的連接詞(nominal conjunctions

l   名詞從屬子句可用作主語和賓語

Whoever, whatever, who, whom, which, that, when, where, how, what, why, whether

l   用作引起形容詞從屬子句的連接詞(adjectival conjunctions

l   形容詞從屬子句可用作表語和定語

Who, whom, whose, which, that, when, where

l   用作引起副詞從屬子句的連接詞副詞 adverbial conjunctions

l   形容詞從屬子句用作副詞(或稱狀語

After, as, although, because, before, if, since, though, until, when, whenever, while, wherever

 

從屬連接詞子句的運用舉例

看例子時不可留意句子的寫法,將例句多看幾次,目標是自己能隨時寫出類似句子。文法上的概念只是向導,很多能寫這類句子的人也不一定能分析句子結構。

引起名詞從屬子句用作

l   When they did it was a mystery.

l   What matters most is good health.

l   It is true that the company has some difficulties on funding-related issues.

引起名詞從屬子句用作

l   That depended on whether or not they wanted to.

l   Jolin wondered what made her boyfriend do it.

引起形容詞從屬子句用作

l   The question was when he did it.

引起形容詞從屬子句用作

l   The old man who lives in that flat is my uncle.

l   Many migrant worker(外省勞工)come to Shenzhen, where job are available.

引起副詞從屬子句(用作副詞)

l   She told me after her father left.

l   Although he was ill, he worked hard.

l   She is good at whatever she does

題外話

l   不少從屬連接詞(如who, whom, whose)也是關係代名詞(relative pronouns)。究竟who, whom, whose等是甚麽?它們代替名詞,所以是relative pronoun。它們將形容詞子句(relative clause)連接到主要子句(main clause),所以是連接詞,它們有雙重身份,正如大學生也可以是補習老師。

l   不少從屬連接詞也有其他詞性,例如whateverShe is good at whatever she does裡是連接詞。在Whatever happened I must be calm and quiet裡是代名詞。在For whatever reason, time heals. (因為甚麽原因都好,時間可以沖淡一切。)裡,whateveradjective。在For whatever weather, we shall start at 9 o'clockwhatever也是adjective

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