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John | 20th Jun 2009, 22:14 PM | 英文文法 (1) | (12999 Reads)
要掌握英語時態 (tense),以下的概念管用:
  1. 英語用詞形變化(gowentgone)來顯示動作在過法、現在抑或將來發生。

  2. 如有兩個動作,英語重視分清兩個動作的先後。

  3. 有些事情(動作)一瞬即逝,有些繼續很長時間。

  4. 在下表,「________」指時間線;「A」和「B」均指事情(動作)

 
Present – simple (I go)現在|__|A動作|
 
  • 用處(1):說現在「大致不變」的事情(動作)或習慣
  • They take their school work seriously.
  • My mother works in a hotel.
  • My brother wears glasses.
  • Donald goes to church every week.
  • 用處(2):真理
  • All men are created equal.
  • 用處(3):宣布;觀察;意見;意願
  •  I declare the meeting open. (宣布)
  •  I think / hope / feel / promise / observe that … 
  • 用處(4)(與表達時間用語連用) 可說未來
  • The exhibition opens on 1 January and ends on 10 January.
Present – continuous (I am going) 現在|_____|A動作發生___(B動作發生)___A動作結束|
 
  • 用處(1):當前正在發生的事情(動作)
  • What are you doing? – I am just washing the floor.
  • 用處(2):說一些趨勢
  • People are becoming less tolerant of different views these days.
  • 用處(3):說一些繼續一段時間但並非「永久」的事情
  • He is studying law in the University of Hong Kong.
  • 用處(4):說一些計劃了的事情
  • We are spending next summer in Greece.
Present – perfect (I have gone) _____|A動作|___效果維持到|現在
 
  • 用處(1):強調動作的效果繼續到現在
  •  I have opened the door. (意指門現在仍開着)
  • He has taken the key away. (所以那鑰匙不在了)
  • 用處(2):延續較長時間且迄今仍繼續的事情(動作) (這和present perfect continuous tense相似)
  •  I have worked as a fireman for 10 years.
  • I have lived in Tai Po since I retired.
Present – perfect continuous (I have been going)現在____|A動作發生____A動作於有關時點仍繼續
 
  • 用處(1):談說話時仍在繼續(或剛停止)的動作
  • The lawyer is very tired.  He has been drafting documents all day.
  • 用處(2):延續較長時間且迄今仍繼續的事情(動作) (這和present perfect tense相似)
  • They have been living in Tai Po for eight years.
  • 用處(3):重複的動作
  • Mary is annoyed.  Peter has been phoning her every morning for the past week.
Past – simple (I went)_____A動作___|過去
 
  • 用處(1):說過去的事
  • She did her homework yesterday.
  • 用處(2):禮貎的詢問等
  • Could you do me a favor?
  • 用處(3):有時用於說剛發生的事
  • Did the telephone ring?
Past – continuous (I was going)____|A動作發生____(B動作發生)___A動作結束___|過去
 
  • 用處(1) simple past tense 配合,描述當一個動作發生時另一個動作正在繼續 
  • When I was blogging, mother came into my room.
  • 用處(2):描述在過去繼續了一段時間的動作
  • Jonathan was standing on the pavement, waiting for her girl friend..
  • I was living abroad in 2008.
  • It was raining heavily all night.
  • 用處(3):禮貎的詢問等
  • I was wondering if you could lend me the book.
  • 用處(4):重覆的事情(動作)
  • When I worked there, Tony was always making mistakes.
Past – perfect (I had gone)_____|A動作(先於B動作)____ |B動作___|過去
 
  • 用處(1):與simple past tense 配合,以分出動作的先後
  • The man had died before the ambulance arrived.
  • He was happy, thinking that he had done a good deed.
  • I had hoped to become a doctor but finally became a writer.
Past – perfect continuous (I had been going)_____A動作發生____A動作於有關時點仍繼續___|過去
 
  • 用處(1):說一個動作,從過去某時點開始,至過去另一時點仍在繼續
  • Jonathan had been waiting there for half an hour when her girl friend arrived.
  • By six that morning, we had been working non-stop for eleven hours.
  • 用處(2):重複的動作
  • Mary was annoyed.  Peter had been phoning her every morning for a whole week.
Future – simple (I will go)|將來|____|A動作|
 
  • 用處:說一個將來會發生的動作
  • He will probably ask Mary to help him.
  • I hope she will get the job.
  • Will you see her in the airport?
  • Ask him again.  Perhaps he will change his mind.
Future – continuous(I will be going) |將來|____|A動作發生___|A動作於有關時點仍繼續|
 
  • 用處(1):說一個將來發生並延續一段時間的動作
  • By this time tomorrow, I shall be lying on the beach.
  • He will be giving a lecture on translation tomorrow morning (這句有表示已安排的事項之意).
  • 用處(2):表示較simple future 禮貎的語氣 
  • When will you see the supervisor? (上級對下級可這樣說) / When will you be seeing the supervisor? (下級對上級可這樣說)
  • 用處(3):表示較 present continuous simple future 弱的意向
  • I am going to work on this tomorrow (work」的意向最強) / I shall work on this tomorrow (work」的意向較弱) / I shall be working on this tomorrow. (work」的意向最弱)
Future – perfect (I will have gone)|將來|_____|A(動作完成)|___|B時點/B動作發生|
 
  • 用處(1):某動作,如在將來某時點前完成,用future perfect tense
  • He will have retired by 2025.
  • By the time you call tomorrow, I will have finished the work.
Future – perfect continuous ( I will have been going)|將來|____|A動作開始____| A動作在有關時點仍繼續)
 
  • 用處:說截至將來某時點(或截至將來另一動作發生時)正在繼續的動作
  • By next month, I will have been working as a fireman for 10 years.
Future in the Past – simple (I would go)_____|B先發生| ____|A後發生|____|過去|
 
  • 用處(1):兩件事情(動作),都在過去,一件在先,一件在後,future in the past – simple 用來說較後那件
  • Last year, he decided that he would re-sit the examination (留意,最後可能有或沒有re-sit the examination)
  • 用處(2):兩件事情(動作),較早那件在過去,但較後那件在未來(即未發生),較後那件仍用future in the past – simple
  • She told us what she would do next week.
Future in the Past – continuous (I would be going)___|A動作開始|_____B動作發生____|A動作結束| ____|過去
 
  • 用處:兩件事情(動作),都在過去,一件發生時,另一件將正在繼續,future in the past – continuous用來說那正在繼續的事情(動作)
  • At that time, I thought he would still be working on the
Future in the Past – perfect (I would have gone)|較早的動作|________|較後的動作|____|過去|
 
  • 用處:兩件事情(動作),都在過去,一件發生時,另一件將已完成,future in the past – perfect 用來說已完成的事情(動作)

  • At that time, I thought he would have finished the work by noon the following day.

Future in the Past – perfect continuous (I would have been going)___動作開始______動作於有關時點仍繼續)____|過去
 
  • 用處:從過去某時點看截至過去另一較後時點仍在繼續的事情(動作)

  • He said he would have been working for the company for 20 years by 2008.

 趣味問題:
  •  He has been working as a fireman for five years 等於 He has worked as a fireman for five year.  He has been cleaning the floor(他一直在清潔地板) 等於 He has cleaned the floor(他將地板清潔了)。

  • When I arrived, he had left (我到達時他已離開一定沒有碰面) 不等 When I arrived, he left. (我到達時他離開可能碰面呢!)

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